Online Quiz Test

Genealogical Records

Tags: GS1, Art and Culture

In News

  • The Indian Council of Historical Research is preparing to reveal ancestor records maintained by genealogical priests.


  • Genealogy priests known as Panda have compiled records of families dating back 15 to 20 generations, including facts such as place of origin, names, births, deaths, cause of death, place of residence, grants made to temples, caste, and clan.
  • Genealogy is the investigation of ancestry
  • With the loss of a family member, many Hindu families make a pilgrimage to religious sites such as Haridwar or Varanasi, where they also see their family priest to register the death and other family happenings.
  • The ICHR intends to assist in making these documents accessible to academics, scholars, and historians.
  • These records can be a valuable resource for understanding historical famines, epidemics, migration, and population movements, as well as clan and community organisation.



• The Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR) is an independent organisation within the Indian Ministry of Education.

• The Ministry of Education & Social Welfare, Government of India (currently the Ministry of Education) created it in 1972.

• ICHR was registered in accordance with the Societies Registration Act (Act xxi of 1860), which governs the registration of Literary, Scientific, and Charitable Societies in India.

The major mission and purpose of the Indian Council of Historical Research is to promote and direct historical research, as well as to support and promote objective and scientific writing of history.

• It gives fellowships and financial aid to young instructors in colleges, universities, and recognised research organisations.

• It publishes the Indian Historical Review and Itihas in Hindi.



Marshes of salt

Tags: GS1

In Context

  • Salt marshes have played an outsized role in environmental stabilisation. Yet, by the turn of the century, more than 90 percent of these biologically productive ecosystems may be lost to sea level rise.

What are Salt marshes?

  • Salt marshes are coastal wetlands that are flooded and drained by salt water brought in by the tides.
  • They are found in intertidal zones along coastlines, typically in protected areas such as estuaries or bays. • They are dominated by grasses and other salt-tolerant plants such as sedges, cordgrass, rushes, and mangroves.


  • Salt marshes protect shorelines from erosion by absorbing wave energy and capturing sediments. They minimise flooding by delaying and absorbing rainwater, protecting water quality by filtering runoff and metabolising excess nutrients, and by reducing runoff velocity.

Coastal squeeze

  • Marshes around the world experience “coastal squeeze,” in which their mobility is impeded by rising sea levels, human activity, and topographical reasons.
  • The greatest threat to salt marshes is sea level rise.

Source: DTE


Nuclear Tactical Weapon

Tags: GS 2, India & Foreign Relations


  • Vladimir Putin, the president of Russia, has announced intentions to place tactical nuclear weapons in Belarus, one of Russia’s closest allies.

Tactical vs Strategic Nuclear Weapons

  • Tactical nuclear weapons consist of small nuclear warheads and delivery systems designed for a limited strike in a restricted region. On the other side, strategic nuclear weapons are understood to be ones that cause more extensive destruction.
  • Tactical nuclear weapons have a shorter range and a smaller yield than strategic nuclear weapons, which can destroy entire cities.

Russia’s Plan

  • Building of nuclear weapons storage facilities in Belarus will be completed by July 1. Russia does not announce how many nuclear weapons will be deployed or when they will be stationed.
  • Russia has already assisted Belarus in modernising its military aircraft to make them capable of carrying nuclear bombs.
  • The U.S. government estimates that Russia possesses around 2,000 tactical nuclear weapons, including aircraft-carryable bombs, warheads for short-range missiles, and artillery rounds.
  • If Russia delivers nuclear weapons to Belarus, it will be the first time they have been deployed outside of Russia since the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan acquired enormous nuclear arsenals with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, but decided to transport them to Russia in the years that followed.

Why is Russia deploying it? 

  • Russia claims that the placement of tactical nuclear weapons in Belarus by Russia does not violate any international agreements that Russia has signed because Russia would retain control over the weapons, just as the U.S. retains control over its tactical nuclear weapons on its allies’ territories in Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Turkey.
  • There have been no arms control agreements between the U.S. and Russia on tactical nuclear weapons, whereas there have been agreements between the U.S. and Russia on strategic nuclear weapons.

Does it violate any international agreements?

  • Russia claims that the placement of tactical nuclear weapons in Belarus by Russia does not violate any international agreements that Russia has signed because Russia would retain control over the weapons, just as the U.S. retains control over its tactical nuclear weapons on its allies’ territories in Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Turkey.
  • There have been no arms control agreements between the U.S. and Russia on tactical nuclear weapons, whereas there have been agreements between the U.S. and Russia on strategic nuclear weapons.


  • The latest move by Russia clearly escalates the Russia-Ukraine war to an entirely new dimension — the nuclear realm — by bringing tactical nuclear weapons literally next door to NATO members.
  • It also affords the West the option to utilise this pretext to escalate the conflict further.

Russia- Belarus Relations

  • A former Soviet state, Belarus is one of the closest and few remaining allies of Russia.
  • Significance for Russia: The geostrategic importance of Belarus to Russia is heightened by the fact that it shares borders with Ukraine and three NATO countries — Lithuania, Latvia, and Poland. In order to maintain Belarus inside its area of influence, Russia supports the dictatorship of Belorussian President Alexander Lukashenko, who is often referred to as “Europe’s last tyrant.”
  • Russia-Ukraine war: Belarus has been used as a forward base by Russia for power projection. In fact, Belarus has been used as a launchpad by Russia to send troops and launch strikes in the ongoing war. Since the outbreak of the war, Belarus has supported Russia during voting at the UN General Assembly resolutions.
  • Military ties: Belarus is a member of the Russian-led military alliance, the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO). Russia leases two military installations in Belarus, both inherited from Soviet times.
  • Economic Ties:  Belarus is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, which is led by Russia. Russia subsidises Belarus’s oil and natural gas imports.
  • Social ties: Belarus, like Russia, is mainly Orthodox and almost exclusively Russian-speaking. Between the two countries, there are only a few border controls.
  • Scenario in India and Pakistan
  • The Nasr missile system provides Pakistan with a tactical nuclear delivery capability. This has provided the possibility for Pakistan to launch a nuclear strike against India’s strike force. India, although possessing a similar tactical nuclear capacity (the Prahaar missile system with a range of 150-300 km), has refused to enter the ‘tactical’ equation and has maintained its original doctrinal position that any nuclear use (tactical or strategic) will result in overwhelming retribution.

Source: TH

Fiber Quality Control Orders

Tags: GS 2, Governance

In News

  • As of late, the Bureau of Indian Standards has issued Quality Control Orders (QCO) for cotton, polyester, and viscose.


  • To ensure the availability of quality products to consumers, various Ministries/Departments of the Government of India issue Quality Control Orders (QCOs) in accordance with section 16 of the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016 stipulating conformity of the products to Indian Standards.
  • Some QCOs were recently revised and made mandatory for a few products. Foreign suppliers of these fibres to India are also required to obtain a certificate from the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the certifying body for QCOs.

State of India’s Fibre Imports

  • The Indian textile and garment industry utilises both indigenous and imported fibres and filaments.
  • India imports between 50,000 and 60,000 tonnes of fibre from close to twenty countries. Polyester is imported annually at a rate of 90,000 tonnes of polyester fibre and 1.25 lakh tonnes of POY (Polyester Partly Oriented Yarn).

Issues with the Order

  • Lost Orders: The overseas fibre manufacturers not only sell to India, but also to other nations. Certain fibres are supplied in limited amounts to India. Cost is associated with obtaining the BIS certificate; hence, not everyone are interested in obtaining it. Indian textile makers who rely on these sources for raw materials will need to find alternative suppliers or risk losing orders.
  •  Delayed Visits: BIS officials have to visit the manufacturing unit abroad before issuing the certificate and this process is yet to be completed for all suppliers who have applied for the BIS registration.
  • Supply Chain Disruption: The buyers of textiles, whether domestic or international, have created a supply chain throughout the years, and when certification restrictions arise, the value chain is disturbed.
  • Ambiguous: There is no clarity on the fibres that were stocked before the certification order.
  • Incomplete:  Several textile facilities use lower-grade fibres derived from rejects and wastes, which are excluded from the QCO.
  • Remedial Measures
  • Imported fibres with unique functional qualities have their own HS (Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System) designation. As a Quality control system already exists, there should be no restrictions on the import of specialised fibres used in mixes with other fibres.
  • BIS certificate shall be issued without delay following inspection
  • Polyester spun yarn mills in the sector of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSME) should get funding to establish labs for product testing.


Bureau of Indian Standards

  • It functions under the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food, and Public Distribution.
  • Initiatives by BIS:
    •  Actions include standardisation, certification, hallmarking, and laboratory product testing.
    • In order to ensure the quality of ISI-marked products on the market, BIS gathers market samples for independent testing.
    •  Firms whose products do not satisfy Indian standards are punished for infractions.
    •  BIS organises Consumer Awareness Campaigns to educate customers on the quality of ISI-marked products, as well as their abuse and colorable counterfeits.





Medicines for Rare Diseases: Duty Exemptions

Tags: GS 2, Health

In Context

  • The Union Government has exempted completely from basic customs tax all medications and foods for specific medical purposes imported for personal use for the treatment of all Rare Disorders enumerated in the National Strategy for Rare Diseases 2021.

How does the new duty exemption work?

  • The Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) has authorised the exemption by changing “Drugs, Medicines or Food for Special Medical Purposes (FSMP)” for “drugs or medicines.”
  • The individual importer must now present a certificate from the central or state director of health services or the district medical officer/civil surgeon in order to qualify for this exemption.

Generally, drugs/medicines are subject to a 10% basic customs duty, whereas certain types of lifesaving drugs/vaccines are subject to a concessionary rate of 5% or 0%.

What are Rare Diseases?

  • Rare diseases (also known as “Orphan” diseases) are essentially described as diseases that occur seldom in a community, and three indicators are employed (the total number of individuals with the condition, its prevalence, and the availability/non-availability of treatment options).
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a rare disease occurs in fewer than 6.5 to 10 per 10,000 people.
  • According to the Indian Organization for Rare Diseases, rare diseases include inherited malignancies, autoimmune disorders, congenital malformations, Hirschsprung’s disease, Gaucher disease, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophies, and Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSDs)

What are the Major Challenges in Fighting Rare Diseases?

  • Fewer than 5 percent of patients have access to approved medications, while 95 percent have no approved treatment, and fewer than 1 in 10 patients receive disease-specific treatment.
  • If pharmaceuticals are accessible, they are prohibitively expensive, putting an enormous strain on existing resources, and the government has been unable to offer them for free.
  • Due to a paucity of epidemiological data on disease prevalence in India, several diseases have been classed as “rare.”
  • The use of uneven definitions and different language can lead to misunderstanding and discrepancies, which have implications for treatment accessibility and research and development.
  • The diagnosis of a rare ailment may take several years due to diagnostic complexities and a lack of physician understanding.
  • According to the NPRD policy, several CoEs had yet to request financial help for the treatment of patients.

National Policy for Rare Diseases, 2021

  • About:
  • Encouragement of local drug development and production, as well as the creation of a hospitable atmosphere for economical indigenous drug production for uncommon diseases.
  • Provisions:
  • It divides ‘rare disease’ into three categories:
  • Group 1: conditions amenable to a one-time curative treatment.
  • Group-2: Disorders needing long-term or lifelong care, with relatively lower treatment costs and established benefits; annual or more frequent observation is required.
  • Group 3: Disorders for which definite treatments are available, but for which appropriate patient selection for benefit, very high cost, and lifelong therapy provide obstacles.
  • The government would notify select Centres of Excellence among premier government hospitals that provide comprehensive care for uncommon diseases.
  • Each Centre of Excellence will receive a one-time grant of up to Rs. 5 crore to establish facilities for screening, testing, and treatment.
·         Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi

·         The Plan provides financial support to patients living below the poverty line (BPL) and suffering from significant life-threatening conditions so that they can obtain medical care at any of the Government’s super speciality hospitals/institutions.


What are the concerns associated with the National Policy for Rare Diseases?

  • It provides no assistance to patients under the 2017 version of the National Policy for the Treatment of Rare Diseases.
  • Due to an absence of adequate selection criteria, patients with Group 3 uncommon diseases are left to fend for themselves.
  • In the absence of long-term funding support for Group 3 patients, the lives of all patients, the majority of whom are youngsters, are now at the mercy of crowdfunding.
  • Even Group 1 is reserved for a select few, while the State administration has been given Group 2.
  • The policy fails to recognise that these diseases are chronic and that some patients may not be able to travel to the tertiary hospitals designated for treatment.
  • Category 3 includes diseases such as LSD for which definitive treatment is available but expenses are prohibitive. Unfortunately, no cash has been granted for acute and long-term treatment needs for therapies that have previously been approved by the Drugs Controller General of India (DGCI).


  • There is an immediate need to educate the general public, patients and their families, and physicians, and to train physicians for early and correct diagnosis.
  • Because resources are finite and have various applications, policymakers must prioritise certain sets of initiatives over others.
  • There should be policy initiatives to assist rare illness research and therapeutic development.

Source: TH

Fee adjustments for business UPI transactions

Tags: GS 3, Indian Economy & Related Issues

In News

  • The National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) has made it possible for prepaid payment instruments (PPIs) to be part of the Unified Payments Interface (UPI) ecosystem, which allows different payment methods to work together.
  • Starting April 1, the NPCI will charge up to 1.1% in interchange fees on merchant UPI transactions made with prepaid payment instruments (PPIs).

Prepaid Payment Instruments (PPIs)

  • • PPIs are instruments that let you use the value stored in them to buy goods and services, use financial services, send money to other people, etc.
  • Examples: PPI includes online wallets (like Paytm Wallet, Amazon Pay Wallet, PhonePe Wallet, etc.), smart cards, magnetic chips, vouchers, and preloaded gift cards. A PPI payment done through UPI is a transaction that is done through a wallet and a UPI QR code.
  • PPIs can be issued by banks and non-banks. Banks can issue PPIs after obtaining approval from RBI. The non-bank PPI issuers are companies incorporated in India and registered under the Companies Act, 1956 / 2013.
  • Closed System PPIs: These PPIs are only given out by a certain entity to help people buy goods and services from that entity. There is no way to get cash out. You can’t pay for or settle third-party services with these instruments.
  • Key Highlights
  • Applicability:
  •  The new NPCI rules on wallet interoperability set up an interchange fee for using wallets. This fee will be paid to the companies that make wallets like Paytm, PhonePe, and Google Pay.
  • They also include fees for loading UPI wallets, which wallet issuers will pay to remitter banks or the bank accounts from which the money is being taken.
  • Benefit for wallet players:
  •  The inter-operability norms will make it possible for all UPI QR codes and devices to accept wallets, which will make wallets more popular.
  • It will also make sure that everyone is treated the same by clearly defining the interchange fees on wallet payments. Currently, wallet issuers and payment platforms work out these fees on a bilateral basis.
  • Interchange fees:
  •  The interchange rates range from 0.5% to 1.1%, depending on the merchant category codes.
  •  Some categories, like fuel, education, agriculture, and utility payments, have a lower interchange rate of 0.5% to 0.7%, while convenience stores, specialty stores, and contractors have the highest interchange rate of 1.1%.
  • Wallet transactions:
  • The merchants pay the interchange fees to the wallets or card issuers, and the fees are usually taken care of by the merchants.
  •  Small merchants and shop owners probably won’t be affected because it only applies to payments over?2,000.
  •  MDR, or merchant discount rate, is sometimes used with wallets-on-UPI, and this change could lead to higher MDRs for merchants, depending on how well and how willing payment companies are to pass on the interchange.
  • Impact on Customers:
    •  The norms are expected to make wallets more popular, useful, and flexible because they can now be used to make UPI payments through QR codes and devices. This gives customers more ways to pay.
    •  Consumers will also be able to load their wallets from anywhere, including with credit or debit cards, BNPL (Buy Now Pay Later), and net banking, among other options. This will make it possible to use any instrument for UPI transactions, whether directly or indirectly.
    • Right now, there is no MDR for bank-to-bank UPI transactions.

  • • The National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) is a nonprofit that operates and oversees retail payment and settlement systems in India.
  • A consortium of large Indian banks, including State Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, and Canara Bank, created it in 2008.
  • The company focuses on developing an inclusive, accessible, and secure payments ecosystem in India.
  •  NPCI’s main product is the Unified Payments Interface (UPI), which was introduced in 2016 and enables customers to transfer funds instantly between bank accounts using a mobile phone.
  • It also oversees the National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT), the Instant Payment Service (IMPS), and the Bharat Bill Payment System (BBPS).
  • Recent partnerships with Google, Amazon, and WhatsApp have enabled digital payments through their systems.
  • NPCI’s efforts to the Indian payments industry have been recognised with accolades such as the Skoch Award for Financial Inclusion in 2020.
  • Currently, approximately 200 banks and financial institutions are members of the NPCI, which is sponsored by the Reserve Bank of India and the Indian government.


Digital Transactions in India

  • • The Indian government has been attempting to boost digital transactions in the Indian economy in order to strengthen the financial sector and make life easier for its residents.
  • Major digital payment modes:  In the past five years, Bharat Interface for Money-Unified Payments Interface (BHIM-UPI), Immediate Payment Service (IMPS), and National Electronic Toll Collection (NETC) have experienced substantial expansion.
  •  By January 2023, BHIM UPI had logged 803,6 crore digital payment transactions totaling? 12.98 lakh crore, making it the most popular payment method among Indian citizens.
  •  State of transactions using digital payments:
  •  Overall number of digital transactions for the period 2022-23: 9,192 billion
  •  Total value of digital transactions(2022-23): ?2,050 lakh crore


Challenges of digital transactions

  • Digital illiteracy: Some portions of the population, particularly in rural regions, may be unfamiliar with digital payment systems and struggle to use them.
  • Connectivity issues: Digital transactions require a stable internet connection, which may not be available in all areas. This can cause payment processing delays and disruptions.
  • Security concerns: Digital payments can be vulnerable to cyber threats and frauds. Malicious actors can steal sensitive financial information and make unauthorized transactions.
  • Technical glitches: Technical glitches can occur during digital transactions, leading to failed transactions or incorrect transfers.
  • Transaction fees: Certain digital payment systems may levy transaction fees, so discouraging their use.
  • Limited acceptance: Not all merchants and service providers may accept digital payments, particularly in remote areas.
  • Dependence on technology: Over Reliance on digital payment systems can make people vulnerable to disruptions in case of technical failures or system outages.

Advantages of using digital payments

  • Instant and convenient mode of payment: Digital modes such as BHIM-UPI and IMPS permit rapid money transfer to the beneficiary account. BHIM-UPI has made it possible to access various bank accounts with a single smartphone application.
  • Enhanced financial inclusion: Digital payments allow anytime, anywhere account access, making it simple for citizens to receive and make phone-based payments. Newly introduced UPI 123PAY enables feature phone users to conduct digital transactions via UPI in aided voice mode, hence facilitating digital transactions and rural financial inclusion.
  • Increased transparency in government system: With digital payment methods, benefits are transmitted directly to the beneficiary’s account, minimising leakage and phantom recipients.
  • Improved speed and timely delivery: Regardless of the sender’s and recipient’s location, digital payments are almost immediate.
  • National Electronic Toll Collection (NETC) system: The NETC system enables electronic payments at toll plazas using Radio Frequency Identification technology.
  • Bharat Bill Payment System: The BBPS provides consumers with an interoperable and conveniently accessible bill payment service via a variety of channels, including Internet banking, mobile banking, mobile apps, BHIM-UPI, etc. The BBPS provides consumers with an interoperable and conveniently accessible bill payment service via a variety of channels, including Internet banking, mobile banking, mobile apps, BHIM-UPI, etc.
  • Enhanced Credit Access: Digital payments establish a user’s financial footprint, increasing access to formal financial services, including credit.
  • Safe and secure: Digital payments are more secure than cash and eliminate the need for recipients to travel large distances.
  • Way ahead
  • Digital transactions have become a fundamental aspect of contemporary commerce, offering customers and enterprises with ease, security, and speed.
  • Other payment mechanisms, such as digital wallets and UPI, which offer cheaper transaction fees, require regulatory engagement.
  • On general, the advantages of digital transactions exceed the disadvantages, and as technology continues to advance, we may anticipate additional payments landscape innovation.

Source: TH

Aims for Defense Manufacturing

Tags: GS 3, Internal Security

In News

  • The Ministry of Defense (MoD) recently inked contracts worth?32 billion for various defence equipment.


  • On the eve of the end of the fiscal year, the Ministry of Defence executed the following agreements:
    • It inked contracts with Goa Shipyard Ltd (GSL) and Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE) for the purchase of eleven offshore patrol vessels of the next generation.
  • It intends to acquire six next-generation missile boats (NGMV) from Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL) for?9,805 crores.
  • It inked a contract with Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) to purchase 13 indigenously designed and manufactured Gun Fire Control Systems (Lynx-U2 Fire Control Systems) for Indian Navy warships.
  • company has also been awarded contracts for enhanced weapon finding radars ‘Swathi’ (Plains) at a cost of over?990 crore and updated Akash Weapon System (AWS) for 3rd & 4th Regiments of Army Air Defence, including live missiles and launchers with improvements, as well as ground support equipment.
  • The Ministry also signed a contract with BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited (BAPL) for the purchase of next-generation maritime mobile coastal batteries (long range) and BrahMos missiles at an estimated cost of more than?1,700 crores.

Indigenisation of Indian Defence Sector:

  • Current Status:
  •  Between 2016 and 2020, India’s defence manufacturing sector has experienced a CAGR of 3.9%. The Indian government has set a target for defence production of US$ 25 billion by 2025, including US$ 5 billion from exports by that year.
  •  Recent data from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) indicate that India is the second-largest importer of armaments, only behind Saudi Arabia.


  • Self-defence:The presence of hostile neighbours such as China and Pakistan makes it unlikely that India will increase its self-defense and preparation.
  • Strategic advantage:Self-reliance will strengthen India’s geopolitical position as a provider of internet security.
  • Technological advancement:Advances in the defence technology sector will immediately stimulate other businesses, hence accelerating economic growth.
  • Economic drain:India spends around 3% of GDP on defence and 60% of that is spent on imports. This leads to an immense economic drain.
  • Employment: The defence industry will require the assistance of various other industries that offer employment possibilities.
  • Challenges :
  • Narrow Private Participation: The lack of a supportive financial structure for private sector participation in the defence sector means that our defence manufacturing cannot benefit from modern design, innovation, and product development.
  • Lack of Critical Technology: Lack of design capability, inadequate R&D investment, inability to manufacture major subsystems and components hamper indigenous manufacturing.
  • Lack of Coordination Between Stakeholders: India’s defence manufacturing capability is hindered by overlapping jurisdictions between the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Industrial Promotion.
  • Bureaucratic delay and licensing issues: There is still no business easiness in the defence industry: Investing in the defence sector is contingent on meeting the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion’s licence standards (DIPP)

Initiatives :

  • Innovations for Defense Excellence (iDEX): It is an effort by the Indian government to modernise the country’s defence industry. It will empower a culture of technology co-creation and co-innovation in the sector and boost innovation among the start-ups and encourage them to be a part of the ecosystem.
  • Defence Corridors:The UP Industrial Defense Corridor and the Tamil Nadu Defense Corridor would develop into a hub for private enterprises, subcontractors, skilled labour, and research and development for the production of military systems and technologies.
  • Budget 2022-23 Allocations :It has set aside nearly 70% of the capital allocation for the domestic industry. 25% of the defense R&D budget has been earmarked for the private sector, including the industry, start-ups and academia.
  • A Special Purpose Vehicle model (SPV) :  is also accounted for in the budget. It will “affirm the private sector’s role as a collaborator, rather than merely a vendor or supplier.”
  • Positive Indigenization List: In December 2021, the Department of Defence Production, Ministry of Defense, announced of the third positive indigenisation list for subsystems.
  • Defence Production and Export Promotion Policy, 2020:Under the ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’ initiative, the government devised a policy to promote self-sufficiency in the defence industry. The Ministry intends to reach a turnover of Rs 1.75 lakh crore (US$ 25 billion) by 2025, including an export of Rs 3.50 lakh crore (US$ 5 billion) in aerospace and defence goods and services.

Source: BL

ISRO makes available pictures of Earth taken by its EOS-06 satellite

Tags: GS 3, Space

In News

  • Images of Earth obtained by the EOS-06 satellite have been released by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).


  • ISRO’s National Remote Sensing Centre generates the photos (NRSC). NRSC/ISRO has created a worldwide False Colour Composite (FCC) mosaic using the Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) payload aboard EOS-06.
  • A mosaic with a spatial resolution of 1 km is created by combining 2939 individual photographs and processing 300 GB of data to depict the Earth as viewed between 1 and 15 February.

EOS-06 satellite

  • On November 26, 2022, ISRO launched the EOS-06 third-generation Oceansat satellite aboard the PSLV-C54 along with eight Nanosatellites.
  •  EOS-06 continues the services of Oceansat-2 and contains four payloads: OCM-, Sea Surface Temperature Monitor, Ku-Band Scatterometer, and ARGOS
  • The EOS-06 is designed to collect ocean colour data, sea surface temperature data, and wind vector data for use in oceanography, climatology, and meteorology.
  • The satellite also supports value added products such as potential fishing zones using chlorophyll, SST and wind speed and land based geophysical parameters.

What is an Earth Observation satellite?

  • Satellites equipped with remote sensing technologies comprise Earth observation satellites. Observation of Earth is the study of the planet’s physical, chemical, and biological systems.
  • Several satellites for earth observation have been placed in sun-synchronous orbit.
  • They are designed for earth observation from space, including military applications such as espionage and civilian applications such as meteorology and cartography.

Source: TH