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Alluri Sitharama Raju and Komaram Bheem


In News

  • The Indian freedom fighters Alluri Sitharama Raju and Komaram Bheem served as inspiration for the Telugu film ‘RRR’, which won the 2023 Oscar for Best Original Song for ‘Naatu Naatu’

Alluri Sitharama Raju

  • Alluri Sitarama Raju, who was born in Andhra Pradesh in 1897 or 1898, led the Rampa or Manyam Rebellion of 1922 in response to the 1882 Madras Forest Act.
  • The Forest Act of 1882 prohibited the collection of minor forest products such as roots and leaves, and the colonial government forced tribal people to work.
  • The Rampa or Manyam Rebellion continued as a guerrilla war until May 1924, when Raju, the charismatic “Manyam Veerudu” or “Hero of the Jungle,” was captured and executed.
  • His heroic exploits earned him the title “Manyam Veerudu” (meaning “Hero of the Jungle”).

Komaram Bheem

  • In 1900/1901, Komram Bheem was born in the Gond tribal community of Sankepally village in the Telangana district of Komaram Bheem.
  • He spread the message “Jal, Jangal, Zameen” among tribal people, which became a rallying cry for the rights of indigenous people to natural resources.

Source: IE

Nanakshahi Sammat 555


In Context

  • The Prime Minister recently greeted the Sikh community on the occasion of the beginning of Nanakshahi Sammat 555.


  • The Nanakshahi Sammat 555 calendar was introduced in 2003 by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC).
  • It is named after Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the founder of the Sikh religion, to commemorate the 500th anniversary of his birth.
  • It is based on the “Barah Maha” (Twelve Months), a composition composed by the Sikh gurus reflecting the changes in nature conveyed in the twelve-month cylcle.
    • The year begins with the month of Chet, which corresponds to March 14 on the Gregorian calendar.
    • The reference epoch of the Nanakshahi calendar is the year 1469 CE, which corresponds to Guru Nanak Dev’s birth.


Silicon Valley Bank crisis

GS 2 Government Policies & Interventions GS 3 Indian Economy & Related Issues

In news

  • The regulators have recently shut down Silicon Valley Bank.

More about the news

SVB’s collapse:

  • SVB, which was founded in 1983, specialised in high-risk, high-growth companies such as technology startups.
  • According to its website, Silicon Valley Bank provided banking services to over 2,500 venture capital firms and nearly half of venture capital-backed technology and life-science companies.
  • SVB became the second-largest bank failure in U.S. history.

Role in India:

  • The bank provided an easy way for Indian startups, particularly those in the Software as a Service (SaaS) industry, with a number of US clients to park their cash, as they were able to open accounts without a US Social Security Number or an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number.
  • Issues & Outcomes:

Global financial stocks:

    • SVB is renowned for fueling a large number of VC-backed tech startups. Two days after the crisis, it is estimated that global financial stocks lost $465 billion in market value.

Tech companies:

  • With its unprecedented crisis, the spotlight is now on all the tech companies affected by the bank’s precipitous decline.

Start ups:

  • As the startup ecosystem tries to make sense of the implosion of Silicon Valley Bank, some entrepreneurs whose funds are frozen at the bank are turning to loans to pay their employees.

Impacts of failure of a large bank like the Silicon Valley Bank

  • Damage to the financial system n & domestic economy:
  • The failure of a large bank anywhere in the world can have a global ripple effect.
  • It is more likely that the impairment or failure of a bank will harm the domestic economy if its activities represent a disproportionately large proportion of domestic banking activities.
  • As a result, there is a greater possibility that the impairment or failure of a larger bank would result in greater harm to the financial system and domestic real economy.
  • Damage of confidence:
  •  The impairment or failure of a large bank is more likely to undermine confidence in the entire banking system.
  • Possibility of failure of other banks:
  •  If there is a high degree of interconnectedness (contractual obligations) between banks, the impairment or failure of one bank may increase the likelihood of impairment or failure at other banks.
  •  This chain reaction has an impact on both sides of the balance sheet.

Affecting services:

  •  The greater a bank’s role as a service provider in underlying market infrastructure, such as payment systems, the greater the disruption its failure is likely to cause in terms of the range and availability of services and infrastructure liquidity.

Costs borne by the bank customers:

  • The costs for customers of a failed bank to obtain the same service from another bank would be significantly higher if the failed bank had a larger market share in providing that service.

Impact on India

  • Different structures & no impact:
    • The reasons for SVB’s failure are unlikely to play out in India as domestic banks have a different kind of balance sheet structure, according to bankers.

No bulk withdrawals:

  • In India, we do not have a system that allows such a large number of withdrawals from deposits.
  • Unlike the United States, where the majority of bank deposits come from corporations, the majority of bank deposits in India consist of household savings.
  • Currently, the majority of deposits are held by public sector banks, while the remainder are held by very strong private sector lenders such as HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank, and Axis Bank.
  • Protection of depositors’ money:
    • In India, the approach of the regulator has generally been that the depositors’ money should be protected at any cost.
    • Whenever banks have faced any issue, the government has come to their aid. The finest example is the rescue of Yes Bank where a lot of liquidity support was provided.
  • Affcting stock markets:
    • The SVB issue, however, created nervousness in the stock markets with bank shares taking a hit and investors losing money in the process.


D-SIB framework 

  • Significance of the framework:

·         The global financial system is interconnected. During the 2008 financial crisis, the problems faced by certain large and highly interconnected financial institutions impeded the orderly operation of the financial system, which had a negative effect on the real economy.

·         The Reserve Bank issued a framework for dealing with D-SIBs on July 22, 2014, drawing on lessons learned from the global financial crisis.

    • ‘Too Big To Fail (TBTF)’:
    • SIBs are perceived as “Too Big To Fail” (TBTF) banks. This perception of TBTF creates the expectation that these banks will receive government assistance in times of distress.
    •  As a result of this perception, these banks have a number of advantages in the funding markets.
    • How does it work?
    • The D-SIB framework requires the Reserve Bank to disclose the names of banks designated as D-SIBs starting from 2015 and place these banks in appropriate buckets depending upon their Systemic Importance Scores (SISs).
    • Depending on the bucket in which a D-SIB is placed, an additional common equity requirement has to be applied to it.
    • This means these banks will have to earmark additional capital and provisions to safeguard their operations.


•         The list of global systemically important banks was compiled by the Financial Stability Board (FSB), a G20 initiative, in consultation with the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) and national authorities (G-SIBs).

•         There are currently 30 G-SIBs.

·         JP Morgan, Citibank, HSBC, Bank of America, Bank of China, Barclays, BNP Paribas, Deutsche Bank, and Goldman Sachs are among them.

·         However, there is no Indian bank on the G-SIB list.


Source: TH

Learning Science via Standards’ initiative

GS 2 Government Policies & Interventions

In News

  • The Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food, and Public Distribution launches a standards-based science education initiative for students.


  • The National Standards Body of India, also known as the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), has introduced a new educational programme for students titled “Learning Science via Standards.”
  • This initiative aims to aid students in comprehending various schemes, policies, and ideas through the lens of standards.
  • This initiative is a continuation of an earlier BIS initiative that established “Standards Clubs” in educational institutions across India.
  • Over the years, over 4200 such Clubs have been established with over one million student members who are exposed to industries and laboratories for standard development as a learning experience.

What is the ‘Learning Science via Standards’ initiative?

  • The initiative is centred on a series of lesson plans designed to incorporate scientific concepts, principles, and laws governing the Indian standards system.
  • The initiative will assist students in comprehending their practical applications in the manufacturing, operation, and testing of the quality characteristics of various products, as specified in the applicable Indian Standards.
  • The topics for the lesson plans are largely related to products used in daily life and have been selected based on their applicability to education as part of the course curriculum and to industrial applications.
  • BIS officials and resource personnel will distribute lesson plans to students for an interactive learning experience, which will also be available on the BIS website.

Purpose of the initiative

  • The lesson plans will help students in schools and colleges understand the importance of quality and standards.
  • It will enable them to confidently face real-world situations in their future endeavours.
  • The initiative is expected to benefit a wide range of students in schools, colleges, and technical institutions.

Challenges of ensuring standards in India

  • Lack of Awareness: A lack of understanding of standards by manufacturers, consumers, and
  •  policymakers results in noncompliance with standards and a decrease in demand for quality products.
  • Weak Enforcement: Despite the existence of standards and regulations, their enforcement is inadequate, resulting in noncompliance on the part of manufacturers and importers.
  • Lack of Infrastructure: Inadequate infrastructure for testing, certification, and quality control, such as inadequate laboratory facilities, personnel shortages, and inadequate accreditation systems.
  • Fragmented Market: India has a fragmented market with a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which lack the resources to comply with standards and certification requirements.
  • Cost: Compliance with standards and certification requirements can be expensive, which is a significant challenge for SMEs and startups.
  • Technological Obsolescence: The fast-paced technological changes create a challenge for standards development and enforcement as the standards need to be updated regularly to keep pace with technological advancements.
  • International Harmonization: The global trade requires harmonization of standards between countries while India faces the challenge of aligning its standards with international standards while preserving its domestic priorities.

Importance of ensuring standards

  • Consumer Protection: Standards protect the health, safety, and well-being of consumers by ensuring that products and services meet quality and safety requirements.
  • Quality Assurance: Standards promote quality assurance and help to prevent the sale of substandard or counterfeit products.
  • Innovation: Standards play a vital role in fostering innovation and supporting the development of new products and technologies.
  • Trade and Commerce: Standards help to facilitate trade and commerce both domestically and internationally by ensuring that products and services meet certain quality and safety standards.
  • Environment: Standards also help to promote environmental protection and sustainability by encouraging the use of environmentally friendly technologies and practices.
  • Competitiveness: Standards can improve the competitiveness of Indian businesses by ensuring that their products and services conform to global standards, making them more appealing to customers.
  • Public Health: Standards in healthcare can help ensure the safety and efficacy of medical devices, drugs, and treatments, thereby safeguarding public health.
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)

•         The Indian Standards Institution (ISI) was established in 1947 under the Indian Standards Institution (ISI) Act of 1946.

•         This organisation is accountable for the creation of standards, product certification, testing, and quality control in India.

•         It develops and publishes standards for products, systems, services, and processes to ensure the safety, quality, and dependability of products and services.

•         BIS operates a product certification programme that offers third-party assurance that products comply with Indian Standards.

•         It has created more than 24,000 standards in diverse fields, including engineering, food, agriculture, textile, consumer goods, and services.

•         Additionally, BIS is a member of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), and Pacific Area Standards Congress (PASC).



  • There is a need for a multi-pronged approach involving awareness-building, capacity-building, infrastructure development, simplification of procedures, and closer collaboration among stakeholders to achieve the desired results.
  • The ‘Learning Science via Standards’ initiative is a step towards bridging the gap between science education and the workforce.

Source: TH

Survey on Coding Skills

GS 2 Governance

In News

  • The NSSO recently conducted a survey to determine the number of programmers in the United States.


  •  The “multiple indicator survey” was conducted by the National Sample Survey Office under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation from January 2020 to August 2021.
  • The survey report was published earlier this month in conjunction with the NSSO’s seventy-eighth round.
  • Findings:
  • It was discovered that there are more young men and women in South India who can write computer programmes using specialised languages or code than in other regions of the nation.
  • Specifically, 9.8% of 15-29-year-olds in Kerala were proficient programmers, the highest percentage in India, followed by Sikkim (6.8%), Tamil Nadu (6.3%), Karnataka (6.2%), Telangana (5.7%), and Andhra Pradesh (4.2%). Bihar (0.5%), Chhattisgarh (0.7%), Assam (0.7%), and Meghalaya (0.2%) were among the states located near the bottom of the table.
  • The findings can be attributed to high levels of literacy, the presence of IT hubs like Bengaluru and Hyderabad, and the availability of skilled young professionals.


National Statistical Office

  • The National Statistical Office is made up of the Central Statistical Office (CSO) and the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO).
  • It serves as the focal point for the planned development of the country’s statistical system. In addition to publishing key indicators, it also establishes and maintains statistical norms and standards.


SCO International Conference on “Shared Buddhist Heritage”

GS 2 International Organisations & Groupings Important International Institutions

In Context

  • New Delhi recently hosted the first international conference of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) on Shared Buddhist Heritage.


  • Coordinating Ministry: The Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the International Buddhist Confederation organised the event (IBC-as a grantee body of the Ministry of Culture).
  • Objective: to re-establish trans-cultural ties and identify commonalities between Buddhist art of Central Asia, art styles, archaeological sites, and antiquities in various SCO museum collections.
  • The conference will focus on India’s cultural ties to the SCO nations.


  •  Under India’s leadership of the SCO, this event has brought together Central Asian, East Asian, South Asian, and Arab nations to discuss Shared Buddhist Heritage. It will not only honour the shared Buddhist heritage, but also strengthen and deepen ties between nations.


Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

•         It is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation of Eurasian Nations with a Beijing-based secretariat.

•         It is a political, economic, and military organisation whose purpose is to maintain peace, security, and stability in the region.

•  The Shanghai Five was formed in 1996 as a result of a series of border demarcation and demilitarisation negotiations between four former Soviet republics and China.

·         Members of the Shanghai Five included Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and Tajikistan.

·         Following Uzbekistan’s accession in 2001, the Shanghai Five was renamed the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).

·         The SCO Charter was ratified in 2003 after being signed in 2002. Initially, both India and Pakistan were observer states. In 2017, both were granted full membership status.

·         The 2021 SCO summit in Dushanbe approved Iran’s membership in the SCO.

·         Belarus has also initiated the SCO membership process.

·         The Shanghai Cooperation Organization is currently comprised of eight Member States (China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan), four Observer States interested in full membership (Afghanistan, Belarus, Iran, and Mongolia), and six “Dialogue Partners” (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Nepal, Sri Lanka).

·         The official languages of the SCO are Russian and Chinese.

  • Structure of the Organization
  • Heads of State Council:
    • It is the supreme SCO body that determines the organization’s internal operations and its interactions with other states and international organisations. It also considers contemporary international issues.

Heads of Government Council:

·         It approves the budget and deliberates and decides upon issues pertaining to the SCO’s economic interaction spheres.

Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs:

    • It considers issues associated with daily activities.
    • Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS):
    • It was established to combat terrorism, separatism and extremism.
  • SCO Secretariat: 

·         It has an office in Beijing.

·         It provides organisational, analytic, and informational support.



IndiaAI Roadmap

GS 3 Science & Technology

In News

  • The Indian government establishes a task force to promote Artificial Intelligence (AI).


  • The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has recently formed a task force to draught a road map for the artificial intelligence ecosystem. The task force will concentrate on enhancing research and facilitating tools for startups and IT firms.
  • The government has also asked startups and participants to volunteer for the task force and to assemble all the necessary components for AI in the country so that the government can assume responsibility for it.

Major highlights:

  • IndiaAI Platform:
  • The objective of the IndiaAI platform is to promote Indian startups, research, and innovation.
  • The government will provide an enabling environment by removing obstacles from the innovative ecosystem.
  • The platform is expected to contribute to the digital economy through improved governance, development, and the creation of an ecosystem for innovation.
  • Projected impact of AI:
    • Estimates predict that AI will add USD 967 billion to the Indian economy by 2035 and USD 450-500 billion to India’s GDP by 2025.
  •  Artificial intelligence is expected to account for 10% of India’s $5 trillion GDP target.
  • Holistic approach:
  • NASSCOM will work to create a road map based on sectors such as clean tech, biotech, and space tech.
  • The government will also prioritise the development of skilled professionals, with the aim of producing one million world-class skilled professionals by 2025.
  • Others advocated for enhanced computing nodes and market support for innovation, while promoting authentic data sets to create solutions.

What is Artifical Intelligence?

  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that entails the development of intelligent machines that can perform tasks that ordinarily require human-like intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and language translation.
  • These tasks include visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and language translation. AI technologies are designed to learn, reason, and self-correct, which makes them extremely useful for automating routine tasks, resolving complex problems, and optimising decision-making.

Challenges of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

  • Skilled workforce: There is a shortage of skilled professionals in the AI industry in India and the demand for skilled professionals still outstrips the supply.
  • Data quality and availability: The lack of standardization and structure in data sets, particularly in sectors like healthcare and education, can limit the effectiveness of AI solutions.
  • Infrastructure: The availability of computing infrastructure is essential for the development and deployment of AI solutions and India needs to invest in improving its computing infrastructure to support the growing demand for AI solutions.
  • Funding: Despite the potential benefits of AI, funding for AI startups and research in India is relatively low compared to other countries for which more funding is needed to support the development and growth of the AI industry in India.
  • Ethical and social implications: AI can have significant ethical and social implications, such as bias, privacy concerns, and job displacement.

Importance of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for India

  • Economic Growth: AI is expected to contribute significantly to India’s economic growth by creating new job opportunities, increasing productivity, and fostering innovation.
  • Healthcare: AI has the potential to revolutionize the healthcare sector by improving patient outcomes, increasing efficiency, and reducing costs through better disease diagnosis, drug development, and personalized treatment.
  • Education: AI can enhance the quality of education by providing personalized learning experiences, automating administrative tasks, and improving student outcomes.
  • Agriculture: AI can improve agricultural practices by optimizing crop yields, reducing waste, and increasing profitability through accurate weather predictions, soil analysis, and crop monitoring to help farmers make informed decisions.
  • Governance: AI can help in improving governance by increasing transparency, reducing corruption, and improving service delivery by better fraud detection, resource allocation, and decision-making.

Government steps to promote AI

  • National AI Strategy: It is the government’s proposed plan to develop a national AI strategy with a focus on research, development, and deployment of AI-based solutions across multiple sectors.
  • AI research institutes: The government has established AI research institutes in the country, such as the Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (CAIR) and the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS), to promote research and development in AI.
  • Start-up programs: It has integrated programs to support AI startups, such as the Startup India program, which provides funding, mentorship, and other resources to startups.
  • Skill development: The government has launched several initiatives to promote skill development in the AI industry, such as the National Programme on Artificial Intelligence, which aims to train professionals in AI-related technologies.

Way ahead

  • Overall, AI can play a significant role in driving India’s growth and development in multiple sectors, and the Indian government’s draught proposal is a step in the right direction.
  • It is anticipated that the roadmap for India’s artificial intelligence ecosystem will have a significant impact on the country’s AI industry’s growth.

Source: BS

Bhopal Gas Tragedy

GS 3

In News

  • The Supreme Court recently denied the government’s petition for additional compensation from Union Carbide Corporation.


  • The Central Government petitioned the Supreme Court for a supplement to the original settlement in light of the revised death toll (ranging from 3,000 to 5,295) The court denied the petition, stating, among other things, that the attempt to increase compensation should have been made immediately following the tragedy, not thirty years later.

Bhopal Gas Tragedy :

  • On December 3, 1984, Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) (Chemical formula- CH3NCO or C2H6NO) leaked from the Union Carbide (now Dow Chemicals) pesticide plant in Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Methyl isocyanate is an odourless, highly combustible liquid that rapidly evaporates when exposed to air. It has a pungent, potent odour. It is extremely toxic, and if its concentration in the air reaches 21ppm (parts per million), inhaling the gas can result in death within minutes.
  • It is one of the world’s worst chemical disasters, and its negative effects on the affected populations persist.


  •  In 1989, the government reached an out-of-court settlement for US$470 million with Union Carbide for the Bhopal disaster.
  • Legislative Actions in the Aftermath:
  • In 1985, the Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster (Processing of Claims) Act was passed, granting the Indian government certain authority to settle claims. It provided the Central Government with the exclusive authority to represent and act on behalf of all claimants.
  • In 1991, the Indian government enacted the Public Liability Insurance Act, mandating that businesses obtain insurance.
  • This insurance’s premium would contribute to an Environment Relief Fund to compensate victims of a catastrophe comparable to Bhopal.

Source: TH

Indian Emigration

GS 3 Indian Economy & Related Issues

In News

  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) recently reported that in 2022, 3,73,434 Indians emigrated to 18

different countries.


  • India has become a major exporter of Skilled and semiskilled workers to developed nations particularly to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, Europe, and other English-speaking countries.
  • Reasons for Emigration: 
    • Better standard of living: The developed nations provide higher living standards, salaries, and tax advantages, etc., which makes emigration very attractive.
    • Easy migration policies: As fertility rates decline, developed nations are easing their immigration policies in an effort to attract talented individuals to boost their economies.
    • Lack of higher education opportunities: Access to higher education in India is arduous due to the increasing cutoffs and numerous competitive exams.
    • Lower-income: Developed countries offer better pay to sectors like health, research, IT, etc. Income is one of the main triggers of emigration from India.
    • Lack of financial research support: India’s Gross domestic expenditure on research has stayed at 0.7% of the GDP for years. India has one of the lowest GERD/GDP ratios among the BRICS nations. So, the minds in R&D tend to migrate to other countries to continue their research.


  • Emigration from India will provide the country with remittances.
  • During 2021-22, India received $89,127 million in foreign inward remittances, the highest amount ever received in a single year.
  • It will bolster Indian interests overseas.
  • Emigration benefits the foreign economy through the transfer of skills acquired at the expense of Indian taxpayers.
  • Emigration deprives India of skilled labour; it is a net loss of talent.


  • Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) Programme: The objective of the programme is to attract young, talented individuals to the study of science and to build the critical human resource pool required for strengthening and expanding the Science & Technology system and R&D base.
  • The Ramanujan Fellowship: It is intended for brilliant Indian scientists residing outside of India to accept positions in scientific research in India.
  • The Ramalingaswami Fellowship: It provides a platform to scientists who are willing to return and work in India.
  • Vaishvik Bharatiya Vaigyanik (VAIBHAV) summit: Numerous academicians of Indian descent from abroad and Indians participated in this initiative to develop innovative solutions for a variety of problems.
  • Way Forward
  • By focussing on education and with adequate investment in cutting edge technologies India should create conditions favourable for attraction of talent rather than looking to contain emigration.

Source: PIB

Landfill Fires

GS 3

In News

  • The Kochi landfill site near Brahmapuram that caught fire earlier this month was a stark reminder that as summer approaches, Indian cities must be prepared for more such incidents.
  • Solid waste management is a crucial component of waste processing in all nations.

Why do Landfills catch fire?

  • India’s municipalities have been collecting more than 95% of the waste generated in cities but the The maximum efficiency of waste processing is 30-40%.
  • The composition of Indian municipal solid waste is approximately 60% biodegradable material, 25% non-biodegradable material, and 15% inert materials such as silt and stone.
  • The openly discarded waste contains combustible materials such as low-quality plastics, which have a relatively high calorific value.
  • During the summer, the biodegradable fraction decomposes significantly faster, causing the temperature of the heap to exceed 70 to 80 degrees Celsius.
  • Higher temperature plus flammable material equals the possibility of a landfill fire.
  • Landfill fires: Surface & Underground fires
  • Surface fires: It consists of recently buried or uncompacted waste located on or near the surface of the aerobic decomposition layer of a landfill. Surface fires are typically characterised by the emission of dense white smoke and the byproducts of incomplete combustion, as well as relatively low temperatures.
  • Underground fires: Underground fires in landfills occur deep below the landfill surface and involve materials that are months or years old. The most common cause of underground landfill fires is an increase in the oxygen content of the landfill, which increases bacterial activity and raises temperatures (aerobic decomposition). These so-called “hot spots” can come into contact with pockets of methane gas and result in a fire.

Impacts of Landfill Fires

  • Health Risks: Landfill fires pose a particular health risk, as they can release hazardous fumes when these materials and substances ignite.
    • Smoke from landfill fires generally contains particulate matter, which can aggravate pre-existing pulmonary conditions or cause respiratory distress. Another serious concern in landfill fires is the emission of dioxins. The term dioxins refers to a group of chemical compounds with similar chemical and biological characteristics that are released into the air during the combustion process.
  • Environmental impact: The dense smoke plumes are the primary source of air pollution. Further emission of greenhouse gas increases the temperature of the atmosphere.
  • India produces more methane from landfills than any other nation, according to GHGSat, a satellite that monitors emissions. Methane is the second most abundant greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, but it is a more potent contributor to the climate crisis due to its greater heat retention.
  • Roadblock to Transportation: Sometimes smoke caused by fire impairs the visibility of commuters.

Landfill Fire prevention

  • Fire prevention can reduce the property damage, injuries, health risks, and environmental dangers associated with landfill fires. Typically, the cost of prevention is much less than the cost of fighting and cleaning up after a fire.
    • Effective landfill management: Management measures include prohibiting all forms of intentional burning, carefully inspecting and controlling incoming waste, compacting buried waste to prevent the formation of hot spots, prohibiting smoking on-site, and maintaining good site security.
    • Monitoring the emission of methane: If methane levels in or around the landfill become explosive, the landfill operator must take immediate steps to mitigate the danger.
    • Converting Landfill Gas to Energy:  The conversion of landfill gas to energy turns this landfill byproduct into a marketable resource. The converted gas can be used to generate electricity, heat, or steam.

Solutions to manage landfill fires

  • The permanent and indispensable solution is to ensure that cities have a systematic waste-processing system in which wet and dry waste are processed separately and their byproducts are treated appropriately (recycling, soil enrichment, etc.). This will require cooperation from multiple parties, including municipalities and waste-processing unit operators.
  • Remove waste piles using bioremediation, i.e., excavate old waste and use automated sieving machines to separate flammable refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from biodegradable material, such as plastics, rags, clothing, etc.


  • Efforts are being made under the “Clean India” initiative to remove these garbage mountains and transform them into green zones.
  • The Global Methane Pledge: an agreement to reduce global methane emissions by at least 30 percent from their 2020 levels by 2030.

74% of India’s methane emissions come from farm animals and paddy fields, compared to less than 15% from landfills.

Source: TH

Exercise Bold Kurukshetra

GS 3 Defence

In Context

  • The Singapore Army and the Indian Army recently participated in the thirteenth edition of Exercise “Bold Kurukshetra.”


  •  The thirteenth edition of Exercise Bold Kurukshetra, a bilateral armour exercise, took place at the Jodhpur Military Station in India.
  • It was first conducted in 2005.
  • This year, it was hosted by the Indian Army, and soldiers from the 42nd Battalion, Singapore Armoured Regiment and an Indian Army Armoured Brigade participated in the exercise.
  • It required knowledge of mechanised warfare in the context of emerging threats and developing technologies.
  • Significance
  • This exercise highlights the strong and long-standing bilateral defence ties between the two countries and strengthens cooperation between the two armies.