Health Mission One
GS 2 Health
- Under the auspices of the National One Health Mission, the government launched the ” Animal Pandemic Preparedness Initiative (APPI)” and the World Bank-funded Animal Health System Support for One Health (AHSSOH) project.
- India’s diverse wildlife, one of the largest livestock populations, and dense human population increase the risk of inter-compartmental disease transmission.The Covid pandemic, recent outbreaks of Lumpy Skin Disease in cattle, and the constant threat of Avian Influenza demonstrate that addressing diseases from the perspective of human health (zoonosis) is insufficient;
- we must also address the livestock and wildlife aspects.This also presents opportunities for leveraging the inherent complementarity and strengths of each sector and developing integrated, robust, and adaptable response systems.
About Recent Initiatives
- Animal Health System Support for One Health(AHSSOH): Using the One Health approach, this initiative aims to develop an ecosystem for a more effective animal health management system.
- The project will be carried out in five states, with the intention of enhancing the capacity building of stakeholders involved in animal health and disease management.
- The project requires the participation of the Human Health, Forestry, and Environment Departments at the national, regional, and local levels in order to create and strengthen the One Health architecture, which includes community participation.
- The collaborative project will be implemented over a period of five years as a Central sector program with a budget of Rs. 1,228.70 Cr.
- Animal Pandemic Preparedness Initiative (APPI)
- It will establish a “integrated disease reporting system for improved surveillance of zoonotic and other animal diseases.”
- The following are the APPI activities that are in various stages of execution:
- Defined national and state joint investigation and outbreak response teams
- Construct an all-encompassing integrated disease surveillance system (based on the National Digital Livestock Mission)
- Strengthening the regulatory system (e.g., Nandi online portal and Field trial guidelines);
- Developing disease modelling algorithms and early warning systems;
- Strategizing disaster mitigation with the National Disaster Management Authority; and
- Initiating targeted R&D to develop vaccines/diagnoses/therapies for priority diseases.
- Develop genomic and environmental surveillance methods to improve disease detection speed and sensitivity
What is One Health?
- One Health is an integrative concept that brings together diverse sectors to address health, productivity, and conservation challenges, and has significant implications for India.
- WHO established the One Health Initiative to integrate the organization’s work on human, animal, and environmental health.
- As a One Health Quadripartite, WHO also collaborates with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH).
Present Scenario In India
- The Prime Minister’s Science, Technology, and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC) approved the establishment of a National One Health Mission with a cross-ministerial effort to coordinate, support, and integrate all the existing One Health activities in the country and fill gaps where necessary.
- The Mission seeks to coordinate pandemic preparedness and integrated disease control against priority human and animal diseases, with early warning systems based on integrated surveillance systems and response readiness for endemic as well as emerging epidemic or pandemic threats.
- The Integrated Disease Surveillance Project, launched in 2004 for disease outbreak detection and rapid response functions, has produced data on the spread of certain disease outbreaks, but the program has been unable to integrate human and animal (livestock and wildlife) surveillance.
- A multidisciplinary Road Map to Combat Zoonoses (2008) was developed to establish an integrated surveillance, detection, and treatment system for zoonotic diseases.
- Absence of standardized methods to measure the complexity of the benefits achieved from the holistic approach.
- Lack of systematic methodology to prove the nature of health impacts across the animal and human health sectors.
- Lack of agreement in leadership issues, resource allocation, and work distribution.
- India has combatted several zoonotic diseases and has a robust institutional network for biomedical research, which can lead and operationalize the One Health approach.
- For One Health Science, it is important to develop databases and models with a consolidated approach of ecologists, field biologists, epidemiologists, and other scientists.
- Understanding and responding to the drivers that threaten health; optimising the effectiveness of public health systems in achieving these goals within each sector
- Institutionalise strong, continuous, and mutually beneficial coordination and collaboration between all stakeholders through multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional joint planning and implementation
- Therefore, a nexus of science, social science, indigenous knowledge, and policy at national, state, and local levels can put forward strategies and institutions for the implementation of One Health.
GS 2 Government Policies & Interventions GS 3 Conservation
- The state of Uttarakhand has launched “A HELP Program.”
What is an A-HELP Program?
- The ‘A-HELP’ training program is administered jointly by the Union Ministries of Rural Development and Fisheries, Animal Husbandry, and Agriculture.
- In the programme, members of women self-help groups registered under State Rural Livelihood Mission, who are helping in various animal husbandry activities in the form of Pashu Sakhi, will be trained as ‘A-HELP’ (Accredited Agent for Health and Extension of Livestock Production).
- A-HELP consists of community-based women activists who assist veterinarians in local departmental activities, assist livestock farmers in acquiring loans for entrepreneurship development, fill out applications, mark the ear tagging of animals and register them in the INAF portal, and provide assistance with insurance, etc.
- ‘A-HELP’ assistance can be used to implement various programs and provide information to farmers at the local level.
Rashtriya Gokul Mission
- The Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM) has been implemented for development and conservation of indigenous bovine breeds since December 2014.
- The scheme is also continued under the umbrella scheme Rashtriya Pashudhan Vikas Yojana from 2021 to 2026.
- To increase bovine productivity and milk production in a sustainable manner using cutting-edge technologies.
- To promote the use of bulls with high genetic merit for breeding purposes.
- To increase artificial insemination coverage by strengthening the breeding network and delivering artificial insemination services to the doorsteps of farmers.
- To promote indigenous cattle and buffalo rearing and conservation using a scientific and comprehensive approach.
National Animal Disease Control Programme (NADCP)
- To vaccinate over 600 million cattle in an effort to reduce the prevalence of two diseases, namely Foot-and-Mouth Disease and brucellosis.
- To manage livestock diseases by 2025 and eliminate them by 2030.
- Cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and pigs will be protected from FMD under the program.The Central Government will fund the entire project.
- The program calls for the tagging of all eligible animals’ ears.
- Dairy Sahakar scheme: It is an initiative of the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer’s Welfare that was launched in 2014-2015 with the goal of promoting the sustainable development of livestock.
- Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund (AHIDF): Fund contributes to an increase in milk and meat processing capacity and product diversification, thereby expanding access to organized milk and meat markets for unorganized rural milk and meat producers.
- Pashu-Aadhar: It is a unique ID on a digital platform for traceability for the animals.
- National Digital Livestock Mission (NDLM)
- Livestock Health & Disease Control (LH&DC) Scheme: It seeks to reduce risks to animal health through prophylactic vaccination against animal diseases, capacity building of Veterinary services, disease surveillance, and strengthening of veterinary infrastructure.
- Dairy Processing and Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF) Scheme:
- Commenced: December 21, 2017
- Objectives: To modernize milk processing and chilling facilities, including value addition
- Application E-GOPALA
- National Artificial Insemination Program
Benefits of Maternity for Mothers of Adoptees
GS 2 Health
- The Supreme Court accepted a petition challenging the constitutionality of Section 5(4) of the 1961 Maternity Benefit Act.
Section 5(4) of the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961
- It stipulates that a woman who adopts a child younger than three months is entitled to twelve weeks of maternity leave.
- The petition challenges Section 5(4) of the Act on the grounds that it is “discriminatory” and “arbitrary” with respect to adoptive mothers and orphans older than three months.
Maternity Benefit Amendment Act 2017
- The original legislation from 1961 lacked specific provisions for adoptive mothers.
- The Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017 amended Section 5 of the former Act to allow biological mothers 26 weeks of paid leave after childbirth.
- According to Section 5(4) of the amended Act, “a woman who legally adopts a child below the age of three months or a commissioning mother shall be entitled to maternity benefit for a period of twelve weeks from the date the child is handed over to the adopting mother or commissioning mother, as the case may be.”
- A commissioning mother is a woman who desires to have a child through the rented womb of a surrogate mother. However, the commission mother continues to be the child’s biological mother and retains all parental rights.
- Option to work from home: A provision of the bill stipulates that an employer may permit a woman to work from home.
- Crèche facilities: The bill requires all businesses with 50 or more employees to provide crèche facilities within a certain distance. The woman will be permitted four crèche visits per day. This will include her rest interval.
- Informing female workers of their entitlement to maternity leave.
- Not applicable to the unorganized sector.
GS 3 Indian Economy & Related Issues
- The National Stock Exchange (NSE) has recently issued a number of notices naming entities engaged in “dabba trading.”
More about the news
- NSE cautioned retail investors not to subscribe (or invest) in any of these products offering indicative/assured/guaranteed returns on the stock market, as they are illegal.
- NSE added that the entities are not recognised as authorised members by the exchange.
What is ‘Dabba Trading’?
- Dabba (box) trading refers to unregulated trading that occurs outside the scope of stock exchanges.
- Traders speculate on stock price movements without engaging in a physical transaction to acquire ownership of a particular stock, as is the case on an exchange.
- In simple terms, it is gambling based on stock price fluctuations.
- For example,
- An investor places a $1,000 wager on a stock at a certain price. If the price increased to?1,500, he or she would realize a profit of?500.Nonetheless, if the price falls to?900, the investor must pay the difference to the dabba broker.Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the broker’s profit is the investor’s loss and vice versa.The equations are especially significant during bull markets and bear markets.
- The primary objective of such transactions is to remain outside the regulatory mechanism’s purview; as a result, transactions are facilitated with cash and the mechanism is operated with unrecognized software terminals.In addition, informal or kaccha (rough) records, sauda (transaction) books, challans, DD receipts, cash receipts, and bills/contract notes could be used as evidence of trading.
- Luring the investors:
- Despite the inherent risk, dabba trading can be profitable due to the absence of rules and regulations.
- What attracts potential investors are brokers’ aggressive marketing, the ease of trading (using apps with a quality interface), and the absence of identity verifications.
- Brokers’ fees and margins are negotiable based on the client’s trading profile, observable volumes, and trends.
- Legal status:
- ‘Dabba trading’ is recognised as an offence under Section 23(1) of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act (SCRA), 1956 and upon conviction, can invite imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years or a fine up to ?25 crore, or both.
- Loss of government exchequer:
- Because there are no proper records of income or gain, dabba traders can avoid paying taxes.
- Their transactions would not be subject to the Commodity Transaction Tax (CTT) or the Securities Transaction Tax (STT).
- The use of cash also excludes these transactions from the formal banking system. All of it contributes to a loss for the government treasury.
- No investor protection:
- In ‘dabba trading’, the primary risk entails the possibility that the broker defaults in paying the investor or the entity becomes insolvent or bankrupt.
- Being outside the regulatory purview implies that investors are without formal provisions for investor protection, dispute resolution mechanisms and grievance redressal mechanisms that are available within an exchange.
- Harassment of clients:
- It is also noticed that clients, on entering the dabba ecosystem, were harassed by the broker’s ‘recovery agents’ for default payments and refused payments upon profit.
- Black money & money laundering:
- Since all activities are facilitated using cash, and without any auditable records, it could potentially encourage the growth of ‘black money’ alongside perpetuating a parallel economy.
- This could potentially translate to risks entailing money laundering and criminal activities.
- Loss & volatility:
- The source warns that the mechanism could potentially translate into ripple effects for the regulated bourse as well by inducing volatility when dabba brokers look to hedge their exposures (take position in an alternate asset or investment to reduce the risk/loss with the current position).
- It also contributes to the bourse losing out on volumes, “even though they may not be significant”.
|Stock Market Trading
• Stock market trading is the process of buying and selling shares in a particular company.
• If you own certain stocks and shares of a company, it translates to you owning a piece of the firm.
• The first exchange for online trading in India and Asia was the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) which was established in 1875.
• BSE, along with the National Stock Exchange in India, are the two main houses where stock market trading takes place.
• National Stock Exchange (NSE)
• National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE) is one of the leading stock exchanges in India, based in Mumbai.
• NSE is under the ownership of various financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies.
• It is the world’s largest derivatives exchange by number of contracts traded and the third largest in cash equities by number of trades for the calendar year 2022.
• NIFTY 50:
• NSE’s flagship index, the NIFTY 50, a 50 stock index is used extensively by investors in India
• Systemically important MII:
• Recently, Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) noted that the National Stock Exchange (NSE) was a systemically important market infrastructure institution (MII).
Acceptance Criteria for Green Deposits
GS 3 Biodiversity and Environment
- The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) announced the framework for green deposit acceptance.The framework will become effective on 1 June.
- About Green Deposits
- A green deposit is an interest-bearing deposit received by a Registered Entity for a fixed period, the proceeds of which are designated for green finance.This fixed-term deposit will be used to finance businesses and projects that facilitate the transition to a low-carbon, climate-resilient, and sustainable economy.
Major Highlights of Recent Framework
- Applicability: It applies to Scheduled Commercial Banks, excluding Regional Rural Banks, Local Area Banks, and Payments Banks, and all deposit-taking Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs), including Housing Finance Companies.
- Registered Entities (RE) will be permitted to issue green deposits on a cumulative or non-cumulative basis, which depositors may renew or withdraw at maturity.
- The same conditions that apply to other public deposits will also apply to green deposits.
- Allocation of fund
- The allocation of funds raised through green deposits by REs during a fiscal year is subject to an annual independent Third-Party Verification/Assurance.
- he green deposits will only be accepted in Indian Rupees.
- Usage :
- The proceeds from green deposits will be utilised for various activities like renewable energy, energy efficiency, and clean transportation among others.
- Excluded industries include, among others, nuclear power generation, direct waste incineration, alcohol, weapons, tobacco, gaming, palm oil industries, and hydropower plants with a capacity greater than 25 MW.
- Aims and objectives
- It aims to encourage regulated entities (REs) to offer green deposits to customers, to protect depositors’ interests, to assist customers in achieving their sustainability goals, to address greenwashing concerns, and to help increase the flow of credit to green activities/projects.
- Present status
- Currently, various banks like Federal Bank, IndusInd Bank, and DBS Bank India accept green deposits.
- Future Outlook
- Climate change has been recognised as one of the most critical challenges and globally, various efforts have been taken to reduce emissions as well as promote sustainability.
- The financial sector can play a pivotal role in mobilising resources and their allocation thereof in green activities/projects. Green finance is also progressively gaining traction in India,
- The allocation of proceeds raised from green deposits should be based on the official Indian green taxonomy.
- The projects must encourage energy efficiency in resource utilisation and improve natural ecosystems and biodiversity.
- Banks and NBFCs will have to put in place a comprehensive board-approved policy on green deposits.
GS 3 Science & Technology
- The latest spectroscopic results from GN-z11 which is one of the distant and early galaxies has confirmed a complete absence of dust particles from its surroundings for an interim time period despite possessing a very high star formation rate.
- About GN-z11 Galaxy
- It was first discovered in 2015 by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).
- It is located approximately 32 billion light years away from the Earth.
- It has been in existence since the Universe was 400 million years old post the Big Bang event.
|Hubble Space Telescope (HST)
• The Hubble Space Telescope is an international collaboration between NASA and the European Space Agency.
• It was launched and deployed in 1990 and was named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble.
• It is the first major optical telescope to be placed in space.Since its launch, it has made groundbreaking discoveries in astronomy. Hubble has made more than 1,400,000 observations throughout its lifetime.
- What are Galaxies?
- The Sun is one of billions of stars in a galaxy, and the Milky Way is just one of billions of galaxies in the universe.In general, astronomers divide galaxies into three major categories: spiral, such as the Milky Way, elliptical, and irregular.
- Star Formation Process
- Stars are the most well-known astronomical objects and galaxies’ most fundamental constituents.
- The history, dynamics, and evolution of a galaxy can be deduced from the age, distribution, and composition of its stars.
- Stars are born within dust clouds and are dispersed throughout the majority of galaxies.
- Deep within these clouds, turbulence gives rise to knots with sufficient mass for the gas and dust to begin to collapse under their own gravitational attraction.
- As the cloud dissipates, the core material begins to heat up. This hot core at the center of the collapsing cloud, known as a protostar, will one day become a star.The process of star formation and subsequent stellar evolution generates massive amounts of dust, which obscures the host galaxy to some extent, as if it were surrounded by a dense veil.The absence of this phenomenon in GN-z11’s behavior has left astronomers dumbfounded.
Reasons Decoded by Scientists for this
- The suppression of dust by reverse shocks from a supernovae explosion, the destruction of dust by supernovae-triggered shocks, and the evacuation of dust by gaseous outflow caused by other stellar activity are all possible explanations for the temporary disappearance of dust clouds.
- A supernova is the star’s explosion. This is the largest explosion to occur in space.Similarly, the reemergence of the dust veil may be related to GN-z11’s enormous gravitational force.
Gains Miniratna Status for Solar Energy Corporation
GS 3 Indian Economy & Related Issues Infrastructure Energy
- The government-owned Solar Energy Corporation of India Limited (SECI) has been designated as a Miniratna Category-I Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE).
- About Miniratna Status
- In October 1997, the government granted certain autonomy and financial authority to certain for-profit organizations based on specific criteria.
- The government has established the following criteria for granting Miniratna status to Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs):
- Miniratna Category-I status: CPSEs are eligible for consideration for Miniratna-I status if they have earned a profit for three consecutive years, their pre-tax profit was at least Rs.30 crores in at least one of those years, and they have a positive net worth.
- Miniratna Category-II status:The CPSEs which have made profit for the last three years continuously and have a positive net worth are eligible to be considered for grant of Miniratna-II status.
- Miniratna CPSEs must not have defaulted on any loan repayments or interest payments owed to the government.
- Miniratna CPSEs must not rely on budgetary support or government guarantees.
Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI)
- It was established on September 20, 2011 under the administrative control of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) to facilitate the implementation of the National Solar Mission (NSM).
- It is the sole CPSU committed to the renewable energy industry. Through amendments to the 2013 Companies Act, the company’s mandate has been expanded to encompass the entire renewable energy domain.
- HQ: New Delhi
GS 3 Defence
- Indian Rafale combat aircraft will participate in a multinational wargame codenamed Orion hosted by France at Mont-de-Marsan, the Air Force base of the French Air and Space Force (FASF).
|Do you know?
- Exercise Orion
- It is a multinational exercise hosted by the French government.
- It takes place against the backdrop of the ongoing Russia-Ukraine conflict, in which NATO, led by the United States, opposes Russian moves in Ukraine.
- Exercise Orion would be the first overseas exercise for the IAF’s Rafale aircraft. According to reports, it is the largest multinational exercise ever conducted by the French defense forces, which include their Army, Navy, and Air Force.
- It involves many of France’s NATO and other important allies like Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Spain and the United States of America.
- The participation of Indian Rafales in multinational wargames improves their capabilities and increases the interoperability of Indian forces with their foreign counterparts.
- Participation in this exercise would further enrich the employment philosophy of the India Air Force by imitating the best practices of other Air Forces.