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Heatstrokes with the current heatwave

GS1 Important Geophysical Phenomena

In News

  • Recently, eleven individuals in Mumbai perished from heatstroke.
  • This event refocuses attention on the potential dangers posed by heat waves, whose intensity and frequency are anticipated to increase as a result of climate change.

What is a heat stroke?

  • Meaning:
  • Heat stroke or sunstroke is the consequence of the body overheating due to exposure to high temperatures and humidity or prolonged physical exertion in high temperatures.
  • A heat stroke is a medical emergency necessitating immediate treatment.
  • How?
  • When the body fails to perspire (especially due to high humidity) and is therefore unable to shed heat through evaporation, the body’s core temperature rises.
  • If the body is unable to calm down, its core temperature can reach 106 degrees Fahrenheit in a matter of minutes.
  • This may result in grave health consequences, including mortality.
  • Symptoms:
  • Heat exhaustion is characterized by lethargy, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, hypotension (low blood pressure), and tachycardia (increased heart rate).


Do’s and don’ts while going out in the heat

  • Maintaining hydration. Consuming water as frequently as possible, even when not famished.
  • Cover yourself adequately. Cotton garments that are lightweight, light-colored, loose, and permeable should be worn.
  • Use eyeglasses, umbrellas or hats.
  • Apply a wet cloth to your cranium.
  • If you are aware of underlying health concerns, avoid prolonged exposure to the Sun.
  • Avoid alcoholic beverages, tea, coffee, and carbonated beverages. They are not an alternative to water.
  • Avoid foods abundant in protein.

Government’s recent actions

  • Monitoring and management:
  •  Monitoring and management of heatwaves have vastly improved in recent years, resulting in a precipitous decline in heatwave-related fatalities.
  • Heat action plans:
  • Nearly every vulnerable state now has a heat action plan consisting primarily of early warning, the provision of water and ORS in public locations, and flexible working hours in offices and schools.
  • Special accommodations are made for outdoor workers.
  • Declined deaths:
  • In the 10 years between 2010 and 2020, reported heatwave-related deaths in India came down by more than 90 per cent.
  • Officials say the increase in heatwave-related deaths could also be because of improved monitoring and reporting of incidents.
What is Heat Wave?

·        It is a period of abnormally high temperatures, exceeding the normal optimum temperature for the summer season.

·        It typically occurs between March and June, but can extend into July on rare occasions.

·        The extreme temperatures and ensuing atmospheric conditions have a negative impact on the inhabitants of these regions because they cause physiological stress, which can lead to death.

Criterion for declaring heat waves in India

•       A heat wave is deemed to exist when a station’s utmost temperature reaches at least 40°C for plains and 30°C for hilly regions.

•       Based on Deviation from Normal Heat Wave: Deviation is between 4.50°C and 6.40°C.

•       Severe Heat Wave: Temperature departure from normal is greater than 6.40 degrees Celsius.

•       Based on Actual Maximum Temperature When actual maximum temperature is below 45 degrees Celsius, a heat wave is present.

•       Extreme Heat Wave: When the actual maximum temperature falls below 47 degrees Celsius.

•       If the above criteria were met in at least two stations within a Meteorological subdivision for a minimum of two consecutive days and the declaration was made on the second day.


•       The prevalence of extreme temperatures around the globe is due to both local and global factors.

•       Scientists have demonstrated how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions exacerbate ocean temperatures, resulting in temperature increases.

•       Human-caused GHG emissions are to blame for the current weather crisis.

•       Without human-caused climate change, heatwaves and wildfires are crucially ‘unimaginable’

Possibility of intense heatwaves

  • Excessively hot summer:
  •  Due to the end of the strong La Nina phase in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, which has a general cooling influence on the earth’s atmosphere, this summer is expected to be extremely hot.
  • Possibility of El Nino’s occurrence: 
  • New forecasts suggest that El Nino, which has the opposite impacts of La Nina, is expected to kick in from the May-July period itself, earlier than expected.
  • El Nino also tends to result in suppression of monsoon rainfall over India.
  • Shortfall in rain:
  • A shortfall in rains is already being apprehended, which could exacerbate the effects of a hot summer, even though the India Meteorological Department has predicted a normal monsoon.

Way ahead

  • Climate change is increasing the population’s exposure to heat, and this trend will persist.
  • Extreme temperature events or heat waves are increasing in frequency, duration, and intensity on a global scale.
  • Heat-related fatalities are preventable.
  • Access to water, oral rehydration salts, and shade are relatively straightforward measures that can prevent hundreds of deaths.However, these do not occur spontaneously. The local government must be vigilant and proactive. And daily oversight of the implementation by higher authorities is required.

Source: IE

Myanmar Crisis

GS 2 India & Foreign Relations

In News

  • The International Court of Justice in The Hague denied the Myanmar junta’s request for a 10-month reprieve to submit a counter-memorial to The Gambia’s claim that Myanmar violated the International Genocide Convention.
  •  The case involves Myanmar’s 2017 “clearing” operations in Rakhine state, during which numerous Rohingya were slain.
Genocide Convention

·        The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Genocide Convention) is an international legal instrument that codified the crime of genocide for the first time.

·        It was the first human rights treaty adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948, and it represented the international community’s commitment to “never again” after the atrocities of World War II.

·        Its adoption was a crucial milestone in the evolution of contemporary international human rights and international criminal law.

Who are Rohingya?

  • They are an ethnic group that consists primarily of Muslims and resides primarily in the Rakhine province of western Myanmar;
  • They speak a dialect of Bengali as opposed to Burmese; andMyanmar considers them colonial migrants, despite the fact that they have resided in the country for generations.
  • Myanmar identifies them as “resident foreigners” or “associate citizens.”

Crisis and Atrocities linked to them 

  • They endured decades of violence, discrimination, and persecution in Myanmar. In 2017, the Myanmar army resumed its attacks, prompting thousands to seek refuge in Bangladesh.
  • Many endured arduous treks through the jungle and perilous crossings of the Bay of Bengal to reach sanctuary in Bangladesh.


  • Besides being a burden on the limited resources of the country also aggravates the security challenges posed to the country.
  •  It also said the rise in terrorism in the last few decades is a cause for concern in most nations and that illegal migrants are more vulnerable to getting recruited by terrorist organisations.

India’s Stand on Refugees

  • All foreign undocumented nationals are governed by The Foreigners Act, of 1946, The Registration of Foreigners Act, of 1939, The Passport (Entry into India) Act, of 1920, and The Citizenship Act, of 1955.
  • India is not a signatory to the 1951 UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol.
  • According to the MHA, foreign nationals who enter the country without valid travel documents are considered irregular immigrants.

Source: IE

Conflict in Sudan

GS 2 India & Foreign Relations Effect of Policies & Politics of Developed & Developing Countries on India’s Interests

In News

  • Recently, in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, fierce combat broke out between the country’s army and paramilitary forces.

Reason of recent crisis

  • Clashes broke out as a result of heightened tensions between the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), a paramilitary group led by Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, also known as Hemedti, and the military, led by Lt Gen Abdel Fattah al-Burhan.

Origin of the Sudan conflict

  • The origins of the ongoing conflict date back to April 2019, when Sudan’s long-serving authoritarian President Omar al-Bashir was deposed by military generals in response to a nationwide uprising against him.
  • Despite Bashir’s removal, demonstrators continued to demand democratic elections. It resulted in an agreement between the military and the demonstrators to establish the Sovereignty Council, a power-sharing body comprised of military officers and civilians, and elections by the end of 2023.
  • In October 2021, the military overthrew the government and Burhan became the de facto leader of the country, rendering the new arrangement temporary. Burhan declared that the military will retain power until July 2023, when elections will be conducted.
  • Over the past few weeks, the RSF (formed in 2013) has been redeployed throughout the nation, which the army views as a provocation and threat. With both parties on edge, a fierce battle erupted.


Repercussions for Sudan

  • The third largest country in Africa by size has seen repeated pro-democracy protests since the 2021 coup.
  • Some experts fear the tussle could transform into a wider conflict leading to the country’s collapse.
  • Sudan’s economy is struggling, battered by hyperinflation and crippled by massive foreign debt.
  • Billions of dollars given in international support and debt relief, were frozen after the ouster of the government.

Darfur Region

  • Darfur is a western Sudanese region. Darfur spans an area of approximately 493,180 square kilometers, or the size of mainland Spain.The majority of the region consists of a semiarid plain, making it unsuitable for the development of a large, complex civilization.



  • The White and Blue Niles converge in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan.

Case at International Criminal Court (ICC)

  • Al-Bashir (Sudanese former military officer and politician who served as the seventh head of state of Sudan under various titles from 1989 until 2019, when he was deposed in a coup) was accused by the International Criminal Court (ICC) of bearing individual criminal responsibility for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes committed in Darfur since 2003.
  • According to the International Criminal Court, al-Bashir “conceived and carried out” a plan to eliminate the three largest ethnic groups: Fur, Masalit, and Zaghawa.
  • Division of Sudan
  • The conflict between the Army of Sudan and the Sudan Revolutionary Front in South Kordofan and Blue Nile in the early 2010s began as a dispute over the oil-rich region of Abyei in the months preceding South Sudan’s independence in 2011.
  • South Sudan became an independent state on July 9, 2011, following a January 2011 referendum in which 98.83% of voters supported independence.

Source: TOI

Plant Nuclear Rooppur

GS 2 Effect of Policies & Politics of Developed & Developing Countries on India’s Interests GS 3 Science & Technology

In News

  • Bangladesh and Russia have agreed to settle payment for the construction of the Rooppur nuclear facility in Chinese yuan, as payment in Russian rubles is currently impractical.

Overview of the Project

  • Bangladesh is constructing the first of two nuclear power plants in partnership with Rosatom, the state-owned atomic corporation of Russia.Once completed, the two reactors at the Rooppur site, approximately 160 kilometers north-west of Dhaka, will produce 2400 megawatts of pure electricity around-the-clock.The ambitious goal of the undertaking is to transform the developing nation into a developed economy by 2041.
  • Bangladesh seeks to expand, diversify, and decarbonize its electricity sector by incorporating nuclear power and renewables, as annual electricity demand increases by approximately 7%. Natural gas currently provides nearly 80% of the nation’s electricity.

Involvement of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  •  Bangladesh is one of 28 nations that are contemplating, planning, or initiating the implementation of nuclear power. The IAEA assists nations interested in developing peaceful nuclear energy applications, such as nuclear power.
  • The IAEA’s milestones approach provides step-by-step guidance for a new nuclear power program’s infrastructure.



•       Commonly referred to as the “Atoms for Peace and Development” organization, the IAEA is the international hub for nuclear cooperation.

•       It was founded in 1957 as an independent organization during the height of the Cold War (1945-1991) between the United States and the Soviet Union.Although established independently by the United Nations through its own international treaty, the agency reports to both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council.

•       It collaborates with member states and international partners to advance the safe, secure, and peaceful use of nuclear technologies.

Functions and Contributions

• As the foremost nuclear monitor, the IAEA is charged with upholding the principles of the 1970 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

• Deals with sovereign states and their pursuance of civil and military nuclear programmes.

• Actively promotes civil nuclear solutions to a variety of fields, such as health, which is one of the most important areas for the peaceful application of nuclear technology.

India’s Role

  •  India has a nuclear cooperation pact with Bangladesh and Russia. The Rooppur project is the first initiative undertaken under an Indo-Russian agreement to implement nuclear energy initiatives in third countries.
  •  Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) is the commanding authority from the Indian side to assist in the construction, installation, and capacity building, as well as to provide support to Russia, which will take the lead in designing, manufacturing, and supplying equipment and building the facility.
  • This will be the first time that Indian companies can participate in a nuclear power project overseas. Since India is not a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), it cannot directly participate in the construction of nuclear power reactors.


Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) 

  • It is a group of nuclear supplier countries founded in 1974 that seeks to contribute to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons by implementing two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports.
  • The NSG Guidelines also include the 1994-adopted “Non-Proliferation Principle,” according to which a supplier may only authorize a transfer if he or she is persuaded that the transfer will not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons.Each Participating Government (PG) implements the NSG Guidelines in accordance with its national laws and practices.
  •  Decisions regarding export applications are made at the national level in accordance with national requirements for export licenses.

Significance for India

  • While India has steadily entered into strategic agreements with key powers such as the United States, Russia, and Japan, this agreement signifies India’s increased involvement in the global civil nuclear sector by involving India in its first project on foreign soil.
  • It has also provided a significant boost to the nation’s ‘Make in India’ initiative by proposing the production of some nuclear equipment for the facility on Indian soil.
  • This agreement is also significant in the context of India’s “Neighborhood First” policy, highlighting its significance in South Asia. It is a significant step towards attaining the goals of non-reciprocity towards India’s smaller neighbors in South Asia, as outlined in the Gujral doctrine, thereby enhancing India’s reputation as a responsible nuclear power.
  • It will also assist India in achieving other strategic goals, such as a free-transit agreement with Bangladesh that will reduce its reliance on the Siliguri Corridor and contribute to the growth of the northeastern region.


The One Week One Lab Program and the Yuva portal

GS 2 Government Policies & Interventions

In News

  • The Union Minister of State (IC) for Science and Technology inaugurated both the ‘Yuva’ portal and the ‘One Week -One Lab’ initiative.


  • ‘Yuva’ portal aims to connect and identify potential youth start-ups across the nation. • It will assist in connecting and identifying potential young start-ups.
  • The CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (NPL) will organize the One Week- One Lab programme.
  • Its purpose is to inform potential stakeholders about the available technologies and services at NPL
  • It seeks to provide solutions to societal problems, to educate the public about the significance of precise measurements, and to foster a scientific temperament among the public, particularly among students who represent the nation’s future.

Source: PIB

Award for Malcolm Adiseshiah in 2023

GS 2 Awards Miscellaneous

In News

  • Utsa Patnaik, a nationally and internationally renowned economist, has been selected for the Malcolm Adiseshiah Award in 2023.

About Malcolm Adiseshiah Award 

  • It is one of India’s most prestigious national awards for recognizing and honoring the contributions of social scientists to the field of development studies.
  • It was established by the Malcolm and Elizabeth Adiseshiah Trust in 2000.
  • The award is presented annually to a distinguished social scientist chosen from nominations received by a specially convened national panel. The award consists of a citation and a cash reward of Rs 2 lakh.
  • The Malcolm Adiseshiah award for outstanding contributions to Development Studies consists of a Rs. 1 lakh monetary prize and a citation.
  • Malcolm Sathiyanathan Adiseshiah (1910-1994) was an Indian educator and development economist. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1976.

Past Indian recipients

  • Bina Agarwal, professor in 2002; Jandhyala B G Tilak, professor in 2003; Dipankar Gupta, professor in 2004; Dr. Amita Baviskar, associate professor in 2005; Prabhat patnaik, economist and political commentator in 2022

Source: TH

Bird Mangrove Pitta

GS 3 Conservation

In News

  • In Bhitarkanika, Odisha, India’s first Mangrove Pitta Bird census is conducted.


  • For the first time in the nation, a census was conducted to analyze the population of these species.
  • The purpose of the survey is to document the growth pattern of these species. These species have not yet been designated as endangered.

Mangrove Pitta Bird 

  • About: 
  •  The mangrove pitta (Pitta megarhyncha) is a member of the Pittidae family of pittas.
  • Mangrove pittas are colorful birds with a black head and chestnut crown, a white throat, greenish upper parts, buff underparts, and a reddish vent area.
  • Habitat:
  •  Coastal mangrove forests of India.
  • Distribution:
  • India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia.
  • Conservation Status:
  • IUCN: Near Threatened 

About Bhitarkanika National Park

  • It is located in the basins where the rivers Brahmani and Baitarani converge. This is the habitat of the endangered saltwater crocodile.
  • The Gahirmatha Beach, which defines the sanctuary’s eastern boundary, is home to the largest Olive Ridley Sea Turtle colony.

Source:  TH

WTO panel rules against India in ICT tariff dispute with EU, others

GS 3 Indian Economy & Related Issues Inclusive Growth & Related Issues

In News

  • In a dispute with the European Union, Japan, and Taiwan over import duties on IT products, a tribunal of the World Trade Organization ruled that India violated global trading rules.

More about News

  • The WTO panel advises India to bring these measures into compliance with its obligations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1994) (GATT 1994).
  • The panel also recommended that India modify its tariffs on these products to comply with international trade regulations.
  • The EU has also contacted India regarding a multiparty interim appeal arbitration arrangement (MPIA) to resolve the dispute.

Why does the dispute arise?

  • India, as a signatory to the 1996 Information Technology Agreement (ITA), is required to eliminate tariffs on a variety of products, including mobile handsets.
  • However, beginning with the 2007-08 Union Budget, India imposed tariffs on a number of electronic items to curb cheap electronic imports from China and promote India’s domestic manufacturing. Japan and Taiwan both lodged comparable complaints during the same year.


Impact of ruling

  • Since the appellate body of WTO — its highest adjudicating authority — is dysfunctional due to the absence of judges, the adverse report of the dispute settlement panel will not have any immediate impact.
  • The Commerce ministry said that India will appeal against this ruling.

How imposition of tariff benefitted India?

  • It led to substantial investments, including ones from Apple and Foxconn.
  • In FY22, India became the second-largest producer of mobile phones, with a market value of Rs. 5277 crore.
  • Exports of mobile phones surpassed $10 billion in FY23.
MPIA (Multi-party interim appeal arbitration arrangement)

•       It is an alternative system for resolving WTO disputes that are appealed by a member in the absence of a functioning and staffed WTO Appellate Body.

•       The MPIA embodies the WTO appellate review rules and in a dispute between members, it will supersede the previous appeal processes and also apply to future disputes between members.

•       Nonetheless, India opposes MPIA as a mechanism and supports the reinstatement of the WTO appellate body.

World Trade Organization (WTO) 

•       It was established in 1995.

•       It is an international institution that oversees the global trade laws among nations.

•       There are 164 members of the WTO.

·        It replaced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) of 1947.

·        The GATT has its roots in the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference, which established the post-World War II financial system and two major institutions, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.The organization’s primary purpose is to assist exporters, importers, and producers of products and services in protecting and managing their businesses.

Electronics Sector in India

  • India is a 76-billion-dollar manufacturing economy with 16 billion dollars of exports in FY 2021-22.
  • Electronics as a sector has jumped to the 6th largest export from India this year.
  • Mobile phones constitute the single largest component of electronics exports from India.
  • By 2026, India has clearly laid out a goal of 300-billion-dollar manufacturing with a 120 billion dollar of exports.

Government Efforts 

•       As a first stage, India utilized the Phased Manufacturing Program (PMP) to establish a mobile industry worth USD 36 billion.

•       India is actively pursuing global exports via Production Linked Incentives (PLI) and a total output of $300 billion.

•       The government is developing policies that will increase domestic value addition over the next few years, with an emphasis on exports.

•       Mission for India Semiconductor

•       Semicon India programme


Source: TH