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Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR): a worldwide danger

Tags: GS 2 Health

In News 

A rising trend of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) has been observed among patients at an Ahmedabad hospital.

About Antimicrobial resistance (AMR

• It is frequently referred to as antibiotic resistance.

• It happens when bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and other microorganisms evolve over time and stop responding to medications, making illnesses more difficult to treat and raising the risk of disease transmission, life-threatening sickness, and death.

• They can transmit from one person to another or between humans and animals, including through animal-sourced foods.


• AMR develops over time spontaneously, typically as a result of genetic alterations. People, animals, food, plants, and the environment all include antimicrobial-resistant microbes (in water, soil, and air).

• The misuse and overuse of antibiotics, a lack of access to clean water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) for humans and animals, inadequate infection and disease prevention and control in healthcare facilities and farms, a lack of access to high-quality, reasonably priced medications, vaccines, and diagnostics, a lack of awareness and knowledge, and a lack of legal enforcement are the main causes of antimicrobial resistance.


• There is an impending public health crisis and a worldwide health problem.

• It is one of the top 10 health hazards to humanity, according to the WHO.

• AMR national action plans (NAPs) have been put into place for human health in several of the economies examined, including India.

• Antimicrobial programmes for animals and the environment that have an equal influence on AMR haven’t been adequately developed or implemented, though.

• Because AMR has a large economic impact, it is essential to formulate policies and put them into practise using a comprehensive “One Health” strategy.

Measures Taken to Rising Anti-Microbial Resistance in India 

• A national AMR containment programme was introduced during the 12th FYP in 2012–17.

• The goal of the National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (NAP-AMR), which focuses on the One Health concept, is to involve many stakeholders’ ministries/departments. It was released on April 19, 2017.

• AMR Surveillance Network: In order to gather data and track trends and patterns of drug-resistant illnesses across the nation, the ICMR developed the AMR surveillance and research network (AMRSN) in 2013.

• AMR Research & International Collaboration: In order to further medical research into AMR, ICMR has made steps to create novel drugs/medicines through international partnerships.

• “India’s National Action Plan for Containment of AMR concentrates on a comprehensive One Health approach and incorporates coordination at the state, national, and international levels.

o India’s National Health Policy 2017 designated managing AMR as a top priority, and the health ministry has since taken a number of steps to stop the rapidly spreading global epidemic.


• Globally, nationally, and within individual hospitals, more must be done to monitor and control infections.

• It is important to increase access to sanitation, clean water, and immunisations.

o Sanitation campaigns need to be led, clean water has to be provided, and infection control programmes run by hospitals need to be supported.

• We need to “optimise” and be “more deliberate” about how we utilise antimicrobial medications when they are not being used to treat human disease, such as in food and animal products.

Antimicrobials must also be prescribed sparingly and only when they are absolutely necessary if AMR is to be reduced.

More cohesiveness between management tactics is also required.

  • To prevent the needless use of antibiotics in farms, which breeds drug-resistant organisms in our food supply, coordination across the animal industry and environmental sectors is vital.

• Make significant investments in R&D using both public and private financing.

Mains Practise Question 

[Q] A multifaceted strategy is required to address the growing health threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Comment