Online Quiz Test

Vibrant Village Programme & Securing Himalayan Borders

GS 2 Government Policies & Interventions

In Context

  • The recently formed Vibrant Village Initiative has been lauded as an important step towards protecting the Himalayan frontiers.

About the Vibrant Village Programme (VVP)


  • The Vibrant Village Project is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme that the Cabinet recently approved for the fiscal years 2022-23 to 2025-26.
  • The scheme will provide funds for the development of essential infrastructure and the creation of livelihood opportunities in 19 districts, 46 border blocks, four states, and one union territory along the country’s northern land border, assisting in achieving inclusive growth and retaining the population in border areas.
  • The programme will include 663 villages in its initial phase.


  • The programme aims to improve the quality of life of people living in specified border villages through the complete development of villages of blocks on the northern border.

Key highlights:

  • The plan assists in identifying and developing economic drivers based on local natural, human, and other resources of border settlements on the northern border, as well as the development of growth centres based on the “Hub and Spoke Model.”


This will be done through:

    • Encouragement of social enterprise
    • Youth and women empowerment through skill development and entrepreneurship
    • maximising tourism potential by promoting local culture, traditional knowledge, and legacy, and
    • Creation of sustainable eco-agribusinesses based on the principle of “One village-One product” through community-based organisations, cooperatives, SHGs, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

Key outcomes that have been attempted are:

  • Connectivity with all weather road,
  • Drinking water,
  • 24×7 electricty – Solar and wind energy to be given focuseed attention,
  • Mobile and internet access.
  • Tourism centres, multi-purpose centres, and health and wellness centres are examples of such facilities.


Vibrant Village Action Plans:

  • Vibrant Village Action Plans will be created by the district administration with the help of Gram Panchayats. 100 % saturation of Central and state schemes will be ensured.


  • This plan will revolutionise our border communities with China, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Myanmar in the near future.
  • All basic amenities, like as modern houses and adequate roads; water and electricity supply; good education, health, and communication facilities; and access to Doordarshan channels, are supplied to border communities.
  • This will serve to encourage people to stay in their native locations in border areas, reversing outmigration from these communities and contributing to improved border security.

Issues & Challenges faced by Himalayan states

  • Social:
  • The Parliamentary Standing Committee highlighted illiteracy, backwardness, and a lack of basic facilities in our border communities in 2018.

Issue of migration:

  • Migration is frequent in the Himalayas, with many men leaving the countryside to find work in cities.

Security threats:

  • For decades, Himalayan border settlements remained undeveloped. Seeing an opportunity, China expanded its influence along our borders by swiftly constructing infrastructure and strengthening its military presence.
  • Due to major errors, India too experienced comparable defeats along the Pakistan border.
  • Terrorist activity has also grown near Myanmar’s border.

Unplanned Urbanisation:

  • The unplanned and unauthorised development has obstructed the natural flow of water, resulting in regular landslides.
  • Himalayan slopes have grown very unstable in recent decades as a result of increased building, hydroelectric projects, and National Highway enlargement.

Subsidence of towns:

  • Subsidence similar to that witnessed in Joshimath has been documented in a number of other Himalayan towns.

Ecology under stress:

  • The fragile ecology is under severe stress as a result of population increase, industrial and commercial activities, and climate change.
  • Common risks include deforestation, soil erosion, and demand on limited land.

Climate change:

  • The implications of climate change are particularly concerning in mountain areas, notably the influence on the region’s water supply, which supplies nearly 1.3 billion downstream residents.
  • Floods and droughts appear to be becoming more common, as does demand for water, food, and energy.

Other initiatives by the government to secure Himalayan villages

  • PM Gram Sadak Yojna:
  • The PM Gram Sadak Yojna would build all-weather roads to connect isolated villages.
  • It began with the construction of concrete roadways in all communities with more than 250 residents.
  • A robust optical fibre network was also built to connect remote villages.

PM Awas Yojna:

  • Similarly, pucca dwellings were built in rural areas as part of the PM Awas Yojna. They were given water and electrical hookups, as well as toilets.

National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem:


  • The National Mission for the Sustainment of the Himalayan Ecosystem is one of eight national missions included in India’s first National Action Plan on Climate Change.


Ecological significance of Himalayas, as stated in the mission document:

  • The Himalayan ecosystem is critical to the Indian landmass’ ecological security because it preserves rich biodiversity,
  • provides water security as the world’s third ice pole after the Arctic and Antarctica,
  • and influences weather patterns throughout the subcontinent.
  • The mission aims to address some critical issues such as Himalayan Glaciers and their associated hydrological consequences,
  • Biodiversity conservation and protection,
  • Wildlife conservation and protection,
  • Traditional knowledge societies and their livelihoods,
  • and Planning for the Sustainability of the Himalayan Ecosystem.

Way ahead

  • The Vibrant Village Programme is an important and commendable initiative that will address all of the issues and challenges faced by the Himalayan states.
  • This will not only make our borders safe and secure, but it will also bring remote and border villages into the national mainstream and make them more vibrant, developed, and self-reliant.

Daily Mains Question

 What problems and obstacles do Himalayan states face? Emphasize the importance of the Vibrant Village Programme (VVP) in addressing the issues.