Online Quiz Test

Act on National Security

Tags: GS 2Governance


  • Recently, Amritpal Singh, the leader of the Waris Punjab De and a self-described Sikh preacher, was charged under the National Security Act.
  • the 1980 National Security Act




  • The National Security Act was adopted by Parliament in 1980 and has subsequently undergone numerous revisions.
  • The NSA “grants the state the authority to hold a person without a formal chargue and without a trial.”


NSA is required:


  • The Act states that taking someone into custody is done to keep them from doing something that would jeopardise “the security of the state” or the “maintenance of the public order.”


Administrative order of District Magistrate: 

  • It is not a detention order issued by the police based on particular allegations or for a specific legal infraction; rather, it is an administrative order issued by the Divisional Commissioner or the District Magistrate (DM).


Principal features of NSA:

  • A person may even be imprisoned right away under the NSA if a trial court has granted them bail.
  • The same person may be imprisoned under the NSA even after being found not guilty by the court.
  • The law eliminates a person’s fundamental right to appear before a magistrate within 24 hours, as is the case when the defendant is being held by the police.
  • The person in custody also lacks the ability to request bail before a criminal court.


Detention justifications:


  • The NSA can be used to stop someone from acting in a way that might harm India’s security, foreign relations, or ability to defend itself.
  • Among other things, it can be used to stop someone from acting in any way that would be detrimental to the upkeep of supplies and services that are vital to the community.


Detention period:


  • A person may be held without being charged for a maximum of 12 months.
  • In exceptional cases, the detained person may be kept in custody for 10 to 12 days without being informed of the charges brought against them.
  • Protection provided by the


Participation in an independent advisory board proceedings:


  • Under Article 22 of the Constitution, preventative detention is permitted in India, as is the right to be protected from arrest and detention in certain circumstances.
  • However, Article 22(3) stipulates that the rights granted to someone who has been arrested would not apply in the case of preventative custody, creating a caveat.
  • One significant procedural protection under the NSA is provided by Article 22.5, which gives all detained individuals the right to present a convincing argument before a three-member independent advisory board. The board is chaired by a member who is currently or has previously served as a judge of a high court.
  • A private inquiry conducted in 2021 revealed that the independent advisory board had supported the imprisonment in each of the NSA cases heard by the Allahabad High Court over the preceding three years.
  • The Act provides protection to the DM who issues the detention order.
  • No criminal or other legal action may be taken against the representative who executes the directives. The Constitution’s available remedy against the state’s ability to detain persons under the NSA is the writ of habeas corpus.


NSA criticism


  • Human rights organisations have complained that the Act violates Article 22 of the Constitution and various provisions of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) that protect the interests of an arrested person, including the right of the arrested person to be informed of the reason for his or her arrest and the right to speak with a lawyer.


Failure to abide under CrPC

  • The CrPC requires that the person who has been arrested appear before the local magistrate within 24 hours, but the NSA makes an exception.


authorities misusing:

  • According to some human rights organisations, authorities frequently abuse it to suppress political opponents or others who criticise the administration.
  • To stop abuse, there have been requests for the Act to be abolished or changed.


Way ahead


  • The National Security Act is unquestionably necessary to safeguard the country from anti-social extremists abusing democratic liberties.
  • Questions concerning a clash between human rights and national security will inevitably come up at the same time. It’s important to strike a balance between the two. The Act must also adhere to the spirit of the Constitution.


Source: TH


China-Sao Tome and Principe Relation

GS 2 Agreements Involving India &/or Affecting India’s Interests

In News

  • According to reports, a Chinese state-owned company has won a multimillion-dollar contract to redevelop an international port in Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands.
  • China’s expansionist policies in the Greater Pacific region continue.


  • Since then, the United States and Australia have expressed concern about China’s efforts to expand its influence in the Indo-Pacific region. In the past few years, the island nation has been slowly gravitating towards China.
  • Earlier, it concluded a security agreement with China that could permit China to station its military and dock vessels on the islands. In 2019, the nation severed diplomatic ties with Taiwan and established formal relations with China.
  • Prior to severing ties, the Solomon Islands were Taiwan’s most populous full-recognition ally in terms of population.


What is the Solomon Island China Pact?

  • The document entitled “Framework Agreement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of Solomon Islands on Security Cooperation” was leaked via social media.
  • The document allows Beijing to send its “police, armed police, military personnel, and other law enforcement and armed forces” to the islands at the request of the local government or if Beijing deems the safety of its projects and personnel to be at risk.
  • The document also stipulates that Chinese naval vessels may use the islands for logistical support. In the wake of this revelation, there have been rumours that China will construct its next overseas naval base in Solomon Islands, following Djibouti, which was also referred to as a logistics support base.

Reasons for the Solomon Islands’ increasing proximity to China

  • The inability of Solomon Islands to manage internal ethnic conflicts led to the development of close security ties with Australia, the traditional first responder to any crisis in the South Pacific.
  • Prior to the emergence of the current government in Honiara, the Solomon Islands had cultivated strong ties with Taiwan.
  • China is notorious for its diplomatic debt traps. By providing capital investment at exorbitant interest rates, the nation has ensnared numerous African and Asian countries.
  • China’s acquisition of the Sri Lankan port of Hambantota was one of the finest examples of the success of its strategy.
  • Beijing offered a half-billion dollars in financial assistance, roughly five times what Taiwan had spent on the islands over the previous two decades.


Why is China interested in the Solomon Islands?

  • These states have disproportionately large maritime Exclusive Economic Zones when compared to their small sizes, which is why these’small island states’ are also referred to as ‘big ocean states’ China can strategically position itself between American military bases in the Pacific islands and Australia by utilising the islands’ location.
  • Considering the emergence of the AUKUS (Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States), which seeks to enhance Australia’s strategic capabilities vis-à-vis China through Anglo-American cooperation, this is particularly significant in the current context.

Solomon Islands

  • The Solomon Islands are located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, northeast of Australia and south of Hawaii.
  • There are 992 islands, 147 of which are inhabited.
  • On July 7, 1978, they gained independence from Britain.
  • Honiara, located on the north coast of Guadalcanal Island, is the capital and largest city of the Solomon Islands.
  • Seventy to eighty percent of the world’s population lives a subsistence lifestyle in small villages, settlements, and islands far from major urban centres.

Approximately 95% of the population is Christian.

  • Flora and Fauna: The major Solomon Islands are of volcanic origin and are covered with swift-moving rivers and streams.
  • They are home to numerous endemic species of flora and fauna, including the common cardinal lorry.


Source: TH


Irradiation of food

GS 2 Health GS 3 Science & Technology

In News

  • On a pilot basis, the Center intends to irradiate onions with Gamma rays before placing them in cold storage.
  • Irradiation decreases post-harvest losses by preventing sprouting.

What is Food Irradiation?

  • Food irradiation is used in food processing to help ensure food safety. Electricity, x-rays, and gamma rays are used in food irradiation to destroy microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and insects.

Need for Food Irradiation

  • The seasonality of production, the great distance between production and consumption centres, and the widening gap between demand and supply increase the likelihood of postharvest losses.
  • India’s hot and humid climate is quite conducive to the growth of numerous insects and microorganisms that annually destroy stored crops and cause food spoilage.
  • Post-harvest losses in food and food grains in India are between 40 and 50 percent, primarily due to insect infestation, microbiological contamination, physiological changes due to sprouting and ripening, and poor shelf life.
  • Sea-foods, meat, and poultry may carry pathogenic microorganisms and parasitic organisms that cause illnesses associated with their consumption.

Advantages of Food Irradiation

  • Food irradiation aids in the prevention of foodborne illness because the organisms responsible for causing foodborne illness are eliminated by this process. This increases the food’s shelf life, allowing it to last longer without losing flavour or texture.
  • Compared to heat or chemical treatment, irradiation is considered a more effective and appropriate method for destroying pathogens that cause foodborne illness.
  • Unlike chemical fumigants, irradiation cannot induce radioactivity in food and does not leave harmful or toxic radioactive residues on foods.
  • Treatment occurs after final packaging, so repackaging is unnecessary.



  • Radiation processing cannot be applied to all types of foods;
  • it cannot eliminate pesticides and toxins already present in foods.

Food Irradiation in India

  • In 1991, the Atomic Energy (Control of Irradiation of Food) Rules were promulgated for the commercial application of the technology in India, and in 1996, they were revised. In 2012, the current Atomic Energy (Radiation Processing of Food and Allied Products) Rules, 2012, were notified of a new amendment.
  • In India, the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is responsible for enforcing these regulations.
  • In accordance with the Food Safety Standards (Food Product Packaging and Labeling) Regulations of 2011, irradiated products are labelled with the ‘Radura’ logo for easy identification.

Source: LM


2023 World Happiness Report

GS 2 Important International Institutions

In News

  • The UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network recently published the eleventh edition of the World Happiness Report (SDSN).

World Happiness Report

  • Since 2012, the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network has published this journal. The World Happiness Report is based on two key concepts:
  • Happiness or life evaluation measured through opinion surveys, and o Identifying key elements that determine well-being, such as levels of GDP, life expectancy, and freedom to make life choices across nations.
  • Typically, the report ranks 150 nations based on factors such as real GDP per capita, social support, healthy life expectancy, freedom to make life decisions, generosity, and perceptions of corruption.
  • Every year, each variable calculates a population-weighted average score on a scale of 0 to 10 that is tracked over time and subsequently compared with other nations.

Key Outcomes of the Report

  • Top Performers:
  • o Finland remains the happiest country in the world for the sixth year in a row, while Nordic nations such as Denmark, Iceland, and Sweden, among others, dominated the top spots on the list with the exception of Israel, which is ranked fourth on the index.
  • Worst Performers:
  • Afghanistan, which is ruled by the Taliban, is among the unhappiest nations, along with Lebanon, Zimbabwe, Sierra Leone, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  • War-scarred Afghanistan’s humanitarian crisis has worsened since the Taliban government took power in 2021, following the U.S.-led military withdrawal.


India & its neighbors:

  • India’s position in the World Happiness Report improved from 136 in 2022 to 126 this year. However, the country is still positioned far below its neighbours, such as Sri Lanka (63), China (74), and Pakistan (108).


Rising resilience around the world:

  • Between 2020 and 2022, the world witnessed a’remarkable’ increase in resilience, according to the SDSN report. The Covid-19 pandemic and the Russian invasion of Ukraine had a significant impact on the world during this time period.
  • According to the report, during this period of crisis, global citizens became more charitable and forged stronger social bonds.
  • According to data, “good deeds” were 25 percent more prevalent in 2022 than before the pandemic.

What Does a Happiness Report Signify?

  • Through the report, the UN-funded non-profit aims to analyse six key factors, including GDP per capita, social support, healthy life expectancy, freedom to make choices, generosity, and perception of corruption.
  • The happiness movement demonstrates that well-being is not a static state, but rather a dynamic process.


International Happiness Day

· Observed on: UN resolution adopted in 2012 designates March 20 as the annual date for observance.

· Theme 2023: Be Mindful. Be Grateful. Be Kind

· Aim: The significance of happiness in human lives.

· Background: Adoption of Bhutan’s resolution prioritising Gross National Happiness (GNH) over Gross National Product (GNP).

· Happiness economics is the study of the connections between individual happiness and economic issues.



Source: TH


APP: Call Before You Dig

GS 2 Government Policies & Interventions

In News

  • The Prime Minister recently introduced the ‘Call Before u Dig’ (CBuD) app to combat uncoordinated digging and excavation.


  • The Call Before u Dig mobile application, a Department of Telecommunications initiative, aims to prevent damage to buried assets such as optical fibre cables caused by uncoordinated digging and excavation.
  • It is estimated that uncoordinated digging and excavation results in annual losses of approximately Rs 3 billion.
  • The app will connect excavators and asset owners so that excavations can be planned in the country while protecting underground assets.
  • It intends to provide excavating companies with a contact point where they can enquire about existing subsurface utilities prior to beginning excavation work. Additionally, utility owners can learn about upcoming work at the site.



  • The application will prevent potential business losses and lessen the inconvenience to citizens as a result of fewer disruptions to essential services such as roads, telecommunications, water, gas and electricity.


Source: IE

Global Initiative On Sharing All Influenza Data( GISAID)

GS 2 Health GS 3 Science & Technology

In News

  • GISAID prohibited scientists from accessing the database containing the genomic information used in their study on the origins of the COVID-19 virus.


  • Numerous scientists have expressed surprise at the ban, which appears to have further poisoned public discourse and shone a brighter light on China’s resistance to international investigations into the origins of the virus.
  • The debate over the virus’s origins remains open for the time being.

What is GISAID 

  • GISAID (Global Initiative On Sharing All Influenza Data) is a 2008-launched open-access database. Its initiative encourages the rapid exchange of data from all influenza viruses and COVID-19-causing coronaviruses.
  • In January 2020, just prior to the onset of the pandemic, Chinese researchers uploaded the first genetic sequence of the novel coronavirus to a server, giving international researchers quick and valuable insight into the virus that would transform the world.
  • GISAID’s terms of service require those who download data to collaborate with data generators and involve them in analyses and additional research using downloaded data.

The Initiative ensures that open, cost-free access to GISAID data is provided to all individuals who have identified themselves and agreed to abide by the GISAID sharing mechanism outlined in its Database Access Agreement.

The GISAID Initiative is supported administratively by Freunde von GISAID e.V., a registered non-profit association organised and operated solely for charitable, scientific, and educational purposes.



Abel Award

GS 2 GS 3 Science & Technology Awards

In News

  • The Abel Prize in mathematics was awarded to Luis Caffarelli, an Argentine-American.


Partial Differential Equations

  • Professor at the University of Texas Luis Caffarelli was recognised for his seminal contributions to regularity theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. He is the first South American-born recipient of the award.
  • Scientists use differential equations to predict the behaviour of the physical world. These equations play an important role in numerous fields, such as engineering, physics, economics, and biology.
  • As laws of nature, partial differential equations arise naturally to describe phenomena as diverse as the flow of water and the growth of populations.

Since the time of Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, these equations have been the subject of intensive research. Nevertheless, despite the efforts of countless mathematicians over the centuries, fundamental questions regarding the existence, uniqueness, regularity, and stability of solutions to some of the most important equations remain unanswered.


About the Abel Prize

  • One of the most coveted awards in mathematics, it is named after the Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel (1802-1829).
  • The Norwegian government funds the Abel Prize, which totals NOK 7.5 million ($710,000).
  • His Majesty King Harald awards the prize on behalf of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.

The selection of the Abel laureate is based on the recommendation of the Abel Committee, which consists of five eminent mathematicians.


India’s Struggle for 6G

GS 3 Science & Technology

In News

  • As part of its 6G mission, the Prime Minister recently unveiled the Bharat 6G vision document and The 6G Testbed.


  • The 6G Testbed will provide academic institutions, industries, start-ups, MSMEs, and industry with a testing and validation platform for evolving ICT technologies.
  • Bharat 6G vision document is prepared by the Technology Innovation Group on 6G (TIG-6G)to develop a roadmap and action plans for 6G in India.

What is 6G (sixth-generation wireless)?

  • 6G (sixth-generation wireless) is envisioned as a vastly superior technology that promises internet speeds up to one hundred times faster than 5G.
  • In contrast to 5G, which at its peak can provide internet speeds of up to 10 gigabits per second, 6G is expected to provide ultra-low latency and speeds of up to 1 terabits per second.

Use Cases:

  • Examples of 6G applications include remote-controlled factories, constantly communicating self-driving cars, and intelligent wearables that receive inputs directly from human senses.


India’s Road Map

  • The government has appointed an apex council to oversee the 6G project and concentrate on issues such as standardisation, spectrum identification for 6G use, ecosystem for devices and systems, and determining research and development funding.

The government intends to implement 6G in two phases.

  • In the first phase, promising exploratory ideas that have the potential to be accepted by the global peer community will receive support.
  • As part of phase two, they will be supported until the establishment of their use cases and benefits, which will lead to the creation of implementational intellectual property and testbeds, and ultimately to commercialization.
  • For the next ten years, the government intends to create a corpus of Rs 10,000 crore to facilitate various funding instruments such as grants, loans, VC funds, fund of funds, etc. for 6G research and innovation.


  • As 6G supporting communication devices will be battery-powered, 6G’s implementation will have a substantial carbon footprint.
  • Spectrum Usage principles must be reconsidered. The government must investigate spectrum sharing, particularly in the higher frequency bands required for 6G.
  • The implementation of 6G depends on the reevaluation and rationalisation of congested spectrum bands, the adoption of captive networks for Industry 4.0 and enterprise use cases, and the adoption of captive networks.
  • Expansion of larger mid-band to accommodate 5G+ and 6G technologies requires initiating a complex inter-ministerial process to repurpose multiple Usage bands.

Way Forward

  • India has been playing catch-up in the development of telecommunication technologies up until this point. 6G presents a tremendous opportunity to leverage the rapidly expanding digital infrastructure and to develop country-specific use cases.


Source: IE.