Online Quiz Test

Military (Special) Powers Act (AFSPA)

GS 2 GS 3 Internal Security Governance

In News

  • The Armed Forces (Special) Powers Act (AFSPA) was extended to Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland by the federal government. Moreover, the AFSPA has been removed from a number of Northeast Indian regions.


  • The AFSPA is a controversial and unpopular law in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and Northeast India because it allows security services to operate without the risk of prosecution or the need for a warrant. Over the years, repeated calls have been made to repeal the law.
  • Under the guise of AFSPA, it has long been alleged that human rights violations, extrajudicial arrests, and killings occur. In recent years, a series of incidents, ranging from the Mon killings to the fabricated encounter in Shopian, J&K, have highlighted these concerns.
  • According to MHA, fourteen civilians were killed during and after a botched Indian Army operation in December 2021.

What is Armed Forces (Special) Powers Act (AFSPA)?

  • Origin of AFSPA:
  • The British promulgated the Act in its original form in 1942 in response to the Quit India movement.
  •  Following India’s independence, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru decided to retain the Act, which was originally enacted as an ordinance and subsequently notified as an Act in 1958.
  • The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, enacted in 1958, grants the armed forces extraordinary powers and immunity to restore order in “disturbed areas.”
  • The Act went into effect decades ago in response to escalating violence in the northeastern states, which State governments found difficult to control.
  • Meaning:
  •  Armed forces have the authority to prohibit a gathering of five or more individuals in a given area, and they can use force or even open fire after giving proper warning if they believe an individual is in violation of the law.
  • If there is reasonable suspicion, the army can also arrest a person without a warrant, enter or search a location without a warrant, and prohibit the possession of firearms.
  •  Anyone arrested or detained may be turned over to the officer in charge of the nearest police station, along with a report detailing the arresting circumstances.
  • Provisions:
  • Under Section 3, the Central Government, the governor of a state, or the administrator of a union territory may declare the entire state or territory to be a disturbed area, or a portion thereof.
  • Conflicts or disagreements between members of different religious, racial, linguistic, or regional groups, castes, or communities can disturb an area.
  • Section 4 grants the Army the authority to conduct warrantless searches and arrests, to use force even to the point of causing death, to destroy arms/ammunition dumps, fortifications/shelters/hideouts, and to stop, search, and seize any vehicle.
  • Section 6 stipulates that arrested individuals and seized property must be turned over to the police as soon as possible.
  • Section 7 protects individuals acting in good faith in their official capacities.
  • The prosecution is only permitted with the approval of the federal government.

Rationale behind imposition of AFSPA

  • Effective functioning of Security Forces: Armed Forces are used in counter-insurgency / anti-terrorist operations when all other state-owned forces have failed to bring the situation under control.
  •  Armed forces operating in such a hostile environment require specific special powers and legal protection.
  • National Security:  The Act plays a crucial role in maintaining law and order in
  • disturbed areas. Thus, protecting sovereignty and security of the nation.
  • Boosting morale of Forces: The Armed Forces Self-Defense Act (AFSPA) improves the morale (mental health) of the armed forces in order to maintain public order in troubled areas, as its repeal would encourage locals to file lawsuits against the army.
  • Arguments against AFSPA
  • Violation of the Human Rights: The exercise of these extraordinary powers by the armed forces has frequently resulted in allegations of staged encounters and other violations of human rights by security forces in troubled areas, while calling into question the indefinite imposition of the AFSPA in certain states.
  •  Human rights violations in AFSPA areas are neither investigated nor met with appropriate action. Consequently, it violates the principle of natural justice.
  • Violation of the right to remedy:  Article 6 of the Act “immediately revokes, abrogates, and frustrates the right to constitutional remedy guaranteed by Article 32, Section 1 of the Constitution.”
  • The AFSPA exceeded the authority granted by the Constitution because it declared a state of emergency without adhering to the Constitution’s requirements for such a declaration.
  • Ineffectiveness of the Act: Critics argue that this act has failed in its objective of restoring normalcy in disturbed areas although being in existence for about 50 years.

Way Ahead

  • Compliance to Human Rights: Human rights compliance and operational effectiveness are not contradictory requirements, and this must be emphasised. In fact, adherence to human rights norms and principles enhances a force’s capacity to counter insurgency.
  • The country recognises the Indian army as an apolitical, secular, and professional force. The armed forces must restructure their approach to operations in states where citizens have developed a growing and justifiable intolerance for human rights violations.
  • Justice Jeevan Reddy Committee Recommendation: This committee recommended in 2005 that the AFSPA be repealed, citing the fact that it has become “a symbol of hatred and a tool of discrimination and tyranny.”
  • Removing Ambiguity in Law: The terms like “disturbed”, “dangerous” and “land forces” need to be clearly defined to ensure greater clarity.
  • Development of Disturbed areas: AFSPA is required to counter insurgencies and lack of development in the Northeast region is also a major reason for the insurgency therefore the Government should take urgent steps to create new opportunities for growth and development.
  • SC ruling on AFSPA: In 1997, the AFSPA’s constitutionality was challenged before the Supreme Court. A five-judge Constitution Bench upheld the law unanimously. Although the court agreed that the Constitution does permit the deployment of armed forces in support of civil authority, it ruled that such deployment can only be authorised for a “temporary period” and “until normalcy is restored.”
  •  The court ruled that prior to declaring a region a “disturbed area,” the state government’s opinion must be sought and the situation must be reviewed periodically.
  •  Any complaint alleging misuse or abuse of the powers granted by the Central Act shall be thoroughly investigated.

Source: TOI

Section 144 of the 1973 Criminal Procedure Code

GS 2 Governance

In News

  • A report titled “The Use and Misuse of Section 144 CrPC” was released recently in the presence of former Chief Justice of India U.U. Lalit.


  • Section 144 is a law from the colonial era intended to prevent obstruction, public annoyance, and maintain peace and tranquilly in the area.
  • It empowers a district magistrate or any other executive magistrate empowered by the state government to issue orders to prevent any untoward incident relating to a law and order situation;
  • The order can be used on specific individuals in a given area or the general public; and
  • It can be used on both specific individuals and the general public.
  • This Report, compiled by four attorneys on the basis of Right to Information responses, provides a one-year analysis of how Section 144 has been implemented in Delhi.


  • The Report indicates that over 6,100 prohibitory orders were issued in the nation’s capital in 2021.
  • After examining nearly 5,400 orders issued for the enforcement of Section 144 in the city, it was determined that nearly 5,400 orders were issued. The report identified instances in which Section 144 was utilised to regulate the sale of balms and cough syrups, which are frequently used as drugs. The report also found that section 144 was utilised for eavesdropping. It was determined that 25.6% of all orders issued by the police were for CCTV installation.
  • It was determined that 43% of all section 144 orders involved the regulation of businesses through record and registration requirements.
  • The conclusion of the report is that the execution of Section 144 orders leaves much to be desired. It is opined that Section 144,CrPC has become part of the regular legal framework, such that warrants are periodically reissued every two months, rather than being used as an exceptional measure.

Powers under Section 144:

  • It grants the executive magistrate the authority to issue an order prohibiting the gathering of four or more individuals in a given area.
  • Under the section, the magistrate can direct any person to abstain from a certain act or pass an order with respect to a certain property in the possession or management of that person in order to maintain peace.
  • It can restrict the movement of individuals, the ability to carry arms, and unlawful assembly. It also grants authorities the ability to block internet access. In addition, obstructing law enforcement officers from dispersing an unlawful assembly is a crime.

Issues with the Section 144 : 

  • The section’s provisions are extensive and grant the magistrate unwarranted authority.
  • The immediate remedy for the order is the application for revision, which must be submitted to the same officer who issued the section 144 order. Contravenes the “Principle of Natural Justice.”
  • It violates the fundamental rights of the people (Article 19, 21).
  • Its usage has surpassed its permissible limit and is now used for mundane/common matters

SC Judgements : 

  • In Babulal Parate v. State of Maharashtra, the supreme court declined to invalidate the statute.
  • In Dr Ram Manohar Lohia case, 1967, the apex court stated that “no democracy can exist if public order is freely allowed to be disturbed by a section of the citizens,” thus refusing to strike down the section.
  • In Madhu Limaye case, 1970, the court stated that “the power of a magistrate under Section 144 is not an ordinary administrative power, but a power used in a judicial manner that can withstand further judicial scrutiny.”
  • Consequently, the court has upheld the constitutionality of the law on numerous occasions, stating that the restrictions imposed by Section 144 fall under the reasonable restrictions on fundamental rights outlined in Article 19(2) of the Constitution.

According to the court, the fact that the law may be abused is not sufficient cause to invalidate it.

Way forward: 

  • Section 144 should be reconsidered by the Supreme Court due to its widespread application. Before enforcing the section, the state should establish an appropriate framework to be followed, so that it is objective.

Source: TH

The Marburg virus illness

GS 2 Health

In News

  • In Tanzania, five people have died and three others have been infected with the Marburg virus.

What is Marburg Virus Disease?

  • This highly contagious disease causes hemorrhagic fever and has a mortality rate of up to 88 percent. It belongs to the same family as the virus that causes Ebola.


  • Human infection results from prolonged exposure to mines or caves inhabited by colonies of Rousettus bats.
  • The disease can be transmitted from person to person through direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of an infected person, as well as surfaces and materials (e.g. bedding, clothing) contaminated with these fluids.


  • Severe malaise, severe headache, and high fever. Muscle aches and pains are a typical symptom.
  • On the third day, severe watery diarrhoea, abdominal pain and cramping, nausea and vomiting may begin.
  • Patients in this phase have been described as having “ghost-like” features, deep eyes, expressionless faces, and extreme lethargy.
  • Two to seven days after the onset of symptoms, a non-pruritic rash was observed.

Severity of the Disease:

  • Involvement of the central nervous system can result in confusion, irritability, and aggression.
  • Many patients develop severe hemorrhagic manifestations within 7 days, and fatal cases typically involve bleeding from multiple sites. Orchitis (inflammation of the testicles) has occasionally been reported in the late phase (15 days).
  • In fatal cases, death typically occurs between 8 and 9 days after the onset, usually preceded by severe blood loss and shock.


  • Preventive measures against Marburg virus infection are not well-defined, as transmission from animals to humans continues to be a topic of active research. One way to prevent infection is to avoid fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) and sick non-human primates.
  • To prevent person-to-person transmission, protective gowns, gloves, and masks should be worn, as well as strict isolation of the infected individual and sterilisation or proper disposal of needles, equipment, and patient excrement.


  • Supportive care (oral or intravenous rehydration) and treatment of specific symptoms improves survival.
  • There is no established treatment for Marburg virus disease. Nonetheless, a variety of potential therapies, including blood products, immune therapies, and drug therapies, are currently being evaluated.

Source: IE


Guidelines for Ethical Use of AI in Healthcare

GS 2 Health

In News

  • The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has released the country’s first Ethical Guidelines for Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Biomedical Research and Healthcare.

What is Artificial intelligence(AI)?

  • Artificial intelligence (AI) is defined as the capability of a system to correctly interpret external data and apply those learnings to accomplish specific goals and tasks through flexible adaptation.
  • Artificial intelligence uses complex computer algorithms to simulate human cognition, albeit with the capacity to analyse vast datasets.

Applications of AI in Healthcare

  • The induction of AI into healthcare has the potential to be the solution for significant challenges faced in the field of healthcare like diagnosis and screening, therapeutics, preventive treatments, clinical decision making, public health surveillance, complex data analysis, and predicting disease outcomes.
  • For example, Computed Tomography (CT) scans can be automatically read by AI as well as radiologists.
  • Tuberculosis screening can be done by AI using Chest X-Rays.
  • As a result, AI for health has been recognized as one of the core areas by researchers as well as the governments.

Need for the Guidelines

  • As AI technologies are further developed and implemented in clinical decision-making, it is crucial to have safeguarding and protection procedures that address accountability in the event of errors.
  • In spite of all the potential benefits, adopting AI for health raises a number of ethical, legal, and social issues, particularly in relation to its development and deployment.
  • The development and deployment of AI-based solutions in healthcare encompass a variety of issues, including those associated with data security, data sharing, and data privacy.

Therefore, it is necessary to have an ethical and regulatory framework before AI for Health is integrated into health research and healthcare delivery.

The Guidelines

  • Aim: To create an ethics framework which can assist in the development, deployment, and adoption of AI-based solutions.
  • For whom:These guidelines are to be used by experts and ethics committees reviewing research proposals involving use of AI based tools and technologies.
  • These apply to health professionals, technology developers, researchers, entrepreneurs, hospitals, research institutions, organisations, and non-specialists who wish to use AI technology and techniques in healthcare.
  • The guidelines contain sections on ethical principles, guiding principles for stakeholders, an ethics review process, AI use governance, and informed consent.
  • According to the guidelines, the ethical review process for AI in health is the responsibility of the ethics committee.
  • The guidelines will be updated periodically as the need arises.

Government Initiatives to Streamline AI in Healthcare

  • India already offers streamlining of AI technologies in various sectors including healthcare through the National Health Policy (2017), National Digital Health Blueprint (NDHB 2019), and Digital Information Security in Healthcare Act (2018) proposed by the Health Ministry which will pave the way for the establishment of the National Data Health Authority and other health information exchanges.

About ICMR

  • It is India’s apex body for the formulation, coordination, and promotion of biomedical research, and one of the oldest medical research organisations in the world.
  • Context: In 1911, the Government of India established the Indian Research Fund Association (IRFA) in order to sponsor and coordinate medical research in the country.
  • In 1949, it was renamed the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).
  • The Union Health Minister presides over the council’s governing body. It is assisted in scientific and technical matters by a scientific advisory board comprising eminent experts in different biomedical disciplines.
  • The ICMR is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • 2007 saw the establishment of the Clinical Trials Registry – India, the national registry for clinical trials in India.


Program for National Rabies Control (NRCP)

GS 2 Health

In News

  • The government of the United States has launched the National Rabies Control Programme (NRCP) for the prevention and control of rabies.


  • The Strategies of the National Rabies Control Program are as follows:
  • distribution of rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin through national free drug programmes
  • Training on the appropriate management of animal bites, prevention and control of rabies, surveillance, and interagency coordination o Enhanced surveillance of animal bites and rabies death reporting
  • raising awareness about rabies prevention
  • The Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) has also requested that the relevant authorities take the necessary measures and effectively implement the Animal Birth Control (Dogs) Rules, 2023 in order to control the dog population.

National Rabies Control Programme (NRCP)

  • It is a zoonotic viral disease. Rabies is 100% fatal, but 100% preventable with vaccination. 33% of global rabies deaths are recorded in India.
  • It is caused by the Rabies virus, which belongs to the genus Lyssavirus and family Rhabdoviridae.
  • The saliva of a rabid animal contains the Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) virus (dog, cat, monkey, etc).
  • Common Vectors/ Reservoirs of Virus:
  •  The most common reservoir of the virus in South Asia and Africa is the domestic/stray dog.
  •  More than 99% of human deaths due to rabies are caused by dog-mediated rabies.
  • In developed nations like the USA, animals that transmit rabies are bats, foxes, raccoons, and skunks.
  •  The vast majority of mammals can carry the virus and thus transmit the disease.
  •  It is transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal, which deposits saliva and the virus in the wound.
  •  The incubation period can range from four days to two years or even longer.
  •  Incubation period refers to the time between the bite and the onset of disease symptoms/signs.


  • Temperature, Headache, Nausea, and Vomiting
  • Anxiety, Confusion, Hyperactivity, Hallucinations, Insomnia
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Excessive salivation
  • Partial paralysis
  • Fear induced by attempts to consume fluids due to difficulty swallowing, etc.
  • Cardiorespiratory failure will invariably result in death within four to two weeks.


World Rabies Day

  •  It is observed on September 28, the anniversary of Louis Pasteur’s passing.
  •  French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur created the first rabies vaccine.
  • In addition, he discovered Pasteurization, Vaccines against Anthrax and Cholera, and Chamberland filters.


About National Action Plan for dog Mediated Rabies Elimination by 2030 (NAPRE)

  • The union will encourage all states and territories to make rabies a reportable disease.
  • A notifiable disease is one that must be reported by law to government authorities.
  • A “Joint Inter-Ministerial Declaration Support Statement” was also issued in support of the eradication of dog-transmitted rabies in India by 2030. It emphasised the significance of the One Health Approach for achieving the 2030 objectives.

Source: PIB

Biotechnology for Transformation

GS 3 Biodiversity and Environment

In News

  • A British startup claims to have developed a Biotransformation Technology that can transform plastics into biodegradable materials without leaving behind any microplastics.

About Biotransformation Technology

  • It is a novel method for ensuring that plastics that escape waste streams are efficiently processed and broken down.
  • It was jointly created by the Imperial College in London, United Kingdom, and the British startup Polymateria.
  • This biotransformation technology is the first in the world to ensure that polyolefins biodegrade completely in an open environment without producing microplastics.

 How it works


Image Courtesy: polymateria

  • Plastics manufactured using this technology have a predetermined period of time during which they resemble conventional plastics without sacrificing quality.
  • Upon expiration and exposure to the external environment, the product self-destructs and biotransforms into bioavailable wax;
  • microorganisms then consume this wax, converting waste into water, carbon dioxide, and biomass.


  • Food packaging and healthcare industries are the two prime sectors that could use this technology to reduce waste.
  • The increase in cost is relatively small compared to conventional plastic that does not contain” this technology.

Usage in India

  • Well-known Indian companies in the food and packaging industries utilise these technologies.
  • This technology provides biodegradable solutions for non-woven hygiene products such as diapers, sanitary napkins, facial pads, etc. within the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries.

Other initiatives of India 

  • The government issued a gazette on plastic waste management to combat the ever-increasing plastic pollution caused by single-use plastics.
  • The Indian government prohibited the use of single-use plastics in 2022, putting an end to their use in the country.
  • The National Dashboard on Elimination of Single-Use Plastic and Plastic Waste Management brings together all stakeholders to track the elimination of single-use plastic and the effective management of plastic waste.
  • An Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) portal improves accountability traceability and makes compliance reporting simpler in relation to the EPR obligations of producers, importers, and brand-owners.
  • India has also developed a mobile app for reporting complaints about single-use plastics to monitor the sale, usage, and production of single-use plastics in their region.

Other alternatives to reducing plastic waste

  • The adoption of jute or paper-based packaging could reduce plastic waste. This could also improve the sustainability of the paper industry and reduce the cost of importing ethylene solutions. Wooden packaging is an additional option, but it will make the packaging bulkier and more expensive.


Do you Know ?

• According to data from 2022, India generates approximately 3.5 billion kilogrammes of plastic waste annually, and per capita plastic waste generation has doubled over the past five years. A third of this is composed of packaging waste.

• According to Statista, the amount of plastic packaging waste generated by e-commerce companies in 2019 was estimated to exceed one billion kilogrammes worldwide.

• According to a joint study conducted by the Department of Management Studies, IIT Delhi, and Sea Movement in 2019, Amazon generated approximately 210 million kilogrammes (465 million pounds) of plastic packaging waste.

Maharashtra and Global Warming

GS 3 Conservation Challenges to Internal Security

In News

  • The recently released Synthesis report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) paints a bleak picture of Maharashtra.


  • The Synthesis Report combines the key findings of the Sixth Assessment Report with contributions from the three Working Groups and three Special Reports.
  • The report indicates that Maharashtra will be among the states most adversely affected by global warming.
  • The report warns that the state of Maharashtra may encounter the following difficulties:

o Due to rapid climate change, the state’s location on the Arabian Sea’s coast makes it susceptible to high temperatures, water scarcity, and large-scale flooding.

  • Additionally, the report warns of a rise in the frequency of flooding.
  • Rising temperatures could result in heat waves, which could pose a serious threat to the state’s health.
  • Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns can have a significant impact on crop yields and food security in a major agricultural state.

Specific Recommendations of the report:

  • The report suggests the following mitigation measures:
  • It requires the state to strengthen the resiliency of its economy, infrastructure, and social systems in response to climate change.
  • It also recommends achieving renewable energy goals, improving public transportation, electrifying the transportation system, and bolstering the energy sector by reducing emissions.
  • It is stated that Maharashtra must cease the conversion of natural ecosystems (terrestrial, coastal, and marine) and encourage reforestation and restoration.

• The IPCC is the United Nations body responsible for evaluating climate change science.

• It was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme in order to provide policymakers with regular assessments of the scientific basis of climate change, its impacts and future risks, and adaptation and mitigation options.


Roary Eel

GS 3 Species in News

In News

  • Off the coast of Cuddalore, researchers have discovered a new species of Moray Eel.


  • Moray eels, or Muraenidae, are a worldwide family of eels.
  • They have small eyes and rely heavily on their highly developed sense of smell, ambushing their prey while lying in wait.

In general, their body is patterned.

  • Moray Eels live in shallow water among reefs and rocks in all tropical and subtropical seas.
  • Moray eels can be found in both freshwater and saltwater habitats.
  • They have two types of jaws, one with large teeth and the other with small teeth (which drags prey inside the eels stomach).
  • This newly discovered species, Gymnothorax tamilnaduensis, was named after Tamil Nadu; its common name is Tamil Nadu brown moray.

Source: IE

First cable-stayed rail bridge in India

GS 3 Indian Economy & Related Issues

In News

  • The Anji Khad bridge in Jammu’s Reasi district is a crucial component of the ambitious plan of the Indian Railways to connect Kashmir to Jammu and the rest of India.

About the Project

  • As part of the Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Rail Link (USBRL) project, the Anji Bridge is the first cable-stayed railway bridge in the nation.

o The Anji River is a tributary of the Chenab River between the districts of Katra and Reasi in Jammu.

  • The Anji bridge is a vital link in the Indian Railways’ plan to provide all-weather rail connectivity between Jammu and Kashmir and the rest of India.
  • Numerous sensors have been installed on the Anji bridge so that its structural integrity can be regularly monitored.
  • It has been designed to withstand winds of up to 213 kilometres per hour and severe storms.

Significance of the Project

  • The project is anticipated to contribute to the socioeconomic development of the State of Jammu and Kashmir by enhancing regional and national connectivity.
  • The goal of the project was to create an efficient, all-weather transportation route that could operate in adverse weather conditions and significantly reduce travel time to various destinations within and beyond the valley.

Udhampur – Srinagar – Baramulla Railway Link

  • It is a National project undertaken by the Indian Railways to construct a 272 km long broad-gauge railway line through the Himalayas in order to connect Kashmir to the rest of the country.
  • The project consists of three ‘legs’: a 25 km stretch from Udhampur to Katra in Reasi district, the location of the revered Vaishno Devi temple, a 111 km track rising northeast from Katra to Banihal in Ramban district, and a 136 km stretch from Banihal to Baramulla, going north and then northwest, passing through Anantnag and Srinagar.


colossal textile parks

GS 3 Indian Economy & Related Issues Growth & Development

In News 

  • Recently the government announced seven mega textile parks under the scheme PM Mega Integrated Textile Regions and Apparel (PM MITRA).

More about the PM MITRA Scheme

  • Key highlights:
  • The seven Mega Integrated Textile Region and Apparel (PM MITRA) parks will be established in different states on Greenfield or Brownfield sites.
  • It will be developed by a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) owned by the State Government and the Government of India as part of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Mode.
  • The plan was inspired by the 5F vision of India’s prime minister.
  • The ‘5F’ Formula includes farm to fibre;
  • fibre to factory;
  • factory to fashion;
  • fashion to foreign.
  • Core infrastructure: 
  • It will include an incubation centre and plug-and-play facility, developed factory sites, roads, power, water and waste-water system, a common processing house and CETP, as well as design and testing centres, among other facilities.
  • These parks will also feature worker dormitories and housing, a logistics park, warehousing, medical, training, and skill development facilities.
  • The Scheme will be implemented on a pan-Indian scale and is intended to promote the overall growth of the textile industry.

The first phase

  • Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Telangana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Uttar Pradesh will each receive a minimum of 1,000 acres for the first phase of the PM MITRA scheme.
  • It will house the entire textile value chain, from fibre to fabric to garments.
  • The parks will be equipped with plug-and-play manufacturing facilities and all the necessary common amenities.
  • Role of Central government:
  •  The federal government will distribute 500 billion rupees in two tranches for each of the seven facilities. This is for the development of essential and auxiliary infrastructure.
  • Role of State governments:
  •  State governments will provide land, participate in the SPV, and grant the necessary clearances.


  • Self sufficiency:
  •  It is consistent with the vision of ‘Atma Nirbhar Bharat’ and aims to establish India as a global leader in textiles.
  • Streamlining value chain, investments & employment:
  •  The scheme aims to streamline the textile value chain into a single ecosystem, including spinning, weaving, and dying, as well as printing and garment manufacturing, and is anticipated to generate?70,000 crore in investments.
  •  It would also result in the creation of twenty million jobs.
  • Strengthening the sector:
  • The parks, which will be open to foreign direct investment, will be situated in states with inherent textile sector strengths.
  • Each park will have effluent treatment plants, worker housing, skill training centres, and storage facilities.
  • It is intended to attract investment from companies seeking to expand and requiring centralised manufacturing facilities.
  • Global competitiveness:
  • It will reduce logistics costs and strengthen the textile industry’s value chain to increase its global competitiveness.
  • Increasing India’s fibre and product offerings will increase its share of the global market beyond the current 5%.

Impact of PM MITRA on MSMEs

  •  The industry is divided on the immediate impact of the massive investments that are anticipated to be made in existing units of parks.
  • MSME & textile sector:
  • The micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSME) sector is said to control approximately 80% of the textiles and apparel manufactured in India at present.
  • Additionally, the Indian textile and clothing industries rely more on cotton.

Issues with supply chains:

  • Over the past two years, supply chains have undergone significant changes due to escalating challenges such as the global geopolitical situation and the exploration of China and other sourcing options by foreign buyers.
  • Significance of the scheme for the sector:
  • Orders are transitioning to suppliers with sustainable production processes and highly competitive pricing.
  • Small- and medium-sized enterprise exporters are recognising the need for integrated, larger facilities, and these factors are anticipated to drive the industry’s investment plans.

Way ahead

  • In order to make a quantum leap in exports and domestic sales, the industry must be price-competitive from the stage of sourcing raw materials and meet the sustainability and traceability requirements of international buyers.
  • State governments and developers should prioritise the development of PM MITRA parks to provide sustainable and cost-effective solutions for pollution control and other issues faced by the textile value-adding segments.
  • India can learn from countries like Turkey, which have highly efficient integrated textile parks.

Source:  TH