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Rising Lightning

Tags: GS1, Important Geophysical Phenomena

In News

  • Researchers in So José dos Campos have recently captured images of positive upward discharges of electricity from lightning conductor rods.

What is Upward Lightning?

  • Upward lightning is a phenomenon in which a lightning bolt originates from a tall object and travels upward towards an overlying electrified storm cloud.
  • Storm electrification and the resulting presence of a cloud charge region are necessary conditions for this to occur.
  • The vertical elevation of a tall object amplifies the electric field locally on the ground, creating favourable conditions for the initiation of an upward streak (called a leader) from a tall object, which can also develop in response to a change in the electric field caused by a nearby preceding lightning flash.

Lightening and its Strike Procedure

  • Definition:
  • Lightning is a rapid, massive discharge of electricity in the atmosphere, some of which is directed towards the surface of the Earth.
  • These discharges are generated by giant, 10-12 km tall, water-bearing clouds.
  • The base of these clouds is typically within 1 to 2 kilometres of the surface of the Earth, while their tops are 12 to 13 kilometres away.
  • At the top of these clouds, temperatures range from minus 35 to minus 45 degrees Celsius.


  • As water vapour ascends in a cloud, the temperature drop causes it to condense. The process generates heat, which propels the water molecules upward.
  • As the water droplets move to temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius, they transform into small ice crystals.
  • They continue to rise, accumulating mass until they become so heavy that they begin to fall to Earth.

This results in a system in which smaller ice crystals ascend and larger crystals descend simultaneously.

  • बढ़ती बिजली


  • Collisions follow, and trigger the release of electrons — a process that is very similar to the generation of sparks of electricity.
  • As the moving free electrons cause more collisions and more electrons, a chain reaction ensues.
  • This process results in a situation in which the top layer of the cloud gets positively charged, while the middle layer is negatively charged.
  • Electrical difference between two layers: 
  • The electrical potential difference between the two layers is huge — of the order of a billion to 10 billion volts.
  • In very little time, a massive current, of the order of 100,000 to a million amperes, starts to flow between the layers.

Enormous heat release: 

  • An enormous amount of heat is generated, resulting in the heating of the air column between the two cloud layers.
  • This heat gives the air column a crimson hue during a lightning strike. As the heated air column expands, shock waves are generated, resulting in thunder.

Reaches Earth:

  • Although the Earth is an excellent electrical conductor, it is electrically neutral.
  • However, compared to the cloud’s middle layer, it becomes positively charged. Consequently, 15%-20% of the current is also directed towards the Earth.
  • This current flow is responsible for the destruction of life and property on Earth.
  • Lightning strikes more on: 
  • There is a greater likelihood of lightning striking tall objects such as trees, towers, and buildings.
  • Once 80-100 metres above the ground, lightning tends to change direction and strike these taller objects.
  • This occurs because air is a poor conductor of electricity and electrons travelling through air seek a better conductor and the shortest route to the positively charged Earth’s surface.


Source: IE

Dispute over Quotas in Karnataka


Tags: GS 2, Government Policies & Interventions


In News

  • The Union government eliminates the OBC reservation for Muslims in Karnataka.



  • Previously, Muslims received a 4% reservation under Category 2B on the basis that they were socially and educationally backward.
  • The government divided this reservation equally between Vokkaligas and Veerashaiva-Lingayats, thereby creating new categories 2C and 2D, respectively.
  • As a result, the reservation quantum for Vokkaligas and other members of the group increased from 4% to 6% and for Veerashaiva-Lingayats and other members of the group increased from 5% to 7%.

However, critics have asserted that the decision was made to appease numerically-dominant communities in the state that have demanded a larger reservation quota.


Reservation in India

  • Reservation is a crucial instrument for achieving social justice and equality in India, as it addresses the historical discrimination and marginalisation faced by certain segments of society.
  • The caste system, which has existed in India for centuries, has resulted in discrimination and oppression of certain communities and has hindered their social, economic, and educational advancement.
  • In India, there are primarily three types of reservations: SC (Scheduled Castes), ST (Scheduled Tribes), and OBC (Other Backward Classes) reservations for socially and educationally backward classes of citizens.
  • Other types of reservations include those for women, economically disadvantaged sections (EWS), and people with disabilities.
  • Reservation eligibility is determined by factors including caste, tribe, income, and educational background.


History of Reservation in India

  • The concept of reservation dates back to the late 19th century, when the British enacted measures to reserve government positions for socially disadvantaged classes.
  • In 1902, Chhatrapati Shahu, the ruler of Kolhapur, instituted a 50 percent reservation for backward classes, which at the time primarily meant non-Brahmins.
  • In 1921, the government of Madras reserved 44% of positions for non-Brahmins and 16% for Brahmins, Muslims, Christians, and Anglo Indians, respectively.
  • In 1932, seats were reserved in provincial assemblies under the Poona Pact, a compromise reached after the Communal Award failed to garner consensus.
  • Other types of reservations include those for women, economically disadvantaged sections (EWS), and people with disabilities.
  • Reservation eligibility is determined by factors including caste, tribe, income, and educational background.


Reservation in the Constitution of India

  • Article 46 of Part IV of the Constitution of India, which contains Directive Principles of State Policy, addresses reservations (DPSPs).
  • These provisions are not enforceable, but they are intended to serve as guidelines for legislators.
  • Article 46 states, “The state shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, especially the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.”
  • The principle of Article 46 is reflected in Articles 15 and 16 of the Constitution, which stipulate reservations in education and employment, respectively.
  • Additionally, the Constitution’s Articles 330 and 332 reserve seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and state legislatures.
  • In the Indra Sawhney Case of 1992, the Supreme Court upheld the 27 percent quota for economically backward castes while striking down the government notification that reserved 10 percent of government jobs for economically backward castes from the higher castes.
  • In the same case, the Supreme Court upheld the principle that the total number of reservation beneficiaries cannot exceed fifty percent of India’s population.
  • The concept of ‘creamy layer’ also gained popularity as a result of this ruling and the provision that reservation for backward classes should only apply to initial appointments and not to promotions.
  • Through the 103rd Amendment to the Constitution of India, also known as the Constitution (One Hundred and Third Amendment) Act, 2019, the government has also provided 10% reservation for economically weaker sections (EWS).
  • Dispute over Quotas in Karnataka


Importance of Reservation Policy

  • Addressing historical injustice: Reservation aids in addressing the centuries-long injustices faced by certain marginalised communities.
  • Promoting social equality: Reservation provides equal opportunities to all, irrespective of caste or creed, and promotes social equality.
  • Uplifting the marginalized: Reservation aids in the advancement of underprivileged groups by providing them with access to education and employment.
  • Ensuring diversity: Reservation promotes diversity in numerous fields, including education, government employment, and political representation.
  • Fostering inclusion: Reservation fosters inclusion of all communities in the mainstream and promotes a sense of belonging.
  • Encouraging merit: Reservation does not compromise merit; rather, it provides equal opportunities to everyone, regardless of caste or religion.



Challenges Faced

  • Providing access to education and employment opportunities: Reservation has enabled members of marginalised communities to gain access to education and employment opportunities that were previously inaccessible to them due to societal barriers.
  • Promoting diversity: Reservation helps to promote diversity and inclusivity in various fields such as education, government, and public services, which in turn leads to better representation and decision making.
  • Empowerment of marginalized communities: Reservation empowers marginalized communities by providing them with equal opportunities and representation, leading to their socio-economic upliftment and empowerment.
  • Reducing discrimination: Reservation helps to reduce discrimination and bias against certain communities, and provides a level playing field for all individuals to compete and succeed based on their merits.


Way ahead

  • India’s reservation policy is an essential instrument for advancing social justice and reducing inequality. However, there are obstacles that must be overcome to ensure that the policy is effective and relevant in the twenty-first century.
  • It is essential for the government to periodically review and revise the policy to ensure that it promotes social and economic equity as intended.

Others argue that reservation policies are flawed and do not address the root cause of the problem, while some believe that reservations are a necessary tool for uplifting historically marginalised groups.


Source: TH

Firearms abuse and mass shootings

Tags: GS 2, Government Policies & Interventions


  • In March 2023, seven people were killed in a school shooting in Nashville (Tennessee, United States). The attack was the 129th mass shooting in the United States in 2023.
  • In an effort to curb the “gun culture” in the state, the Punjab government revoked 813 licences to carry firearms.

Gun violence in US

  • No other developed nation in the world has a comparable rate of gun violence as the United States.
  • In 2021, there will be 48,830 gun-related fatalities in the United States. While mass shootings and gun murders (homicides) typically garner a great deal of media attention, in 2021, more than half of all deaths were due to suicide.
  • In each of the past three years, there have been over 600 mass shootings in the United States, an average of nearly two per day. A mass shooting is defined as an incident resulting in the injury or death of four or more people. This includes both domestic and public shooting incidents.
  • आग्नेयास्त्रों का दुरुपयोग और सामूहिक गोलीबारी

Reasons for Gun Violence in US

  • With 120,5 firearms per 100 residents, the United States has the highest firearm density in the world. There are roughly 390 million firearms in circulation in the United States.
  • In New York State Rifle v. Bruen (2022), the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the right to carry a pistol in public was protected by the Second Amendment.
  • Federal law prohibits individuals with certain types of criminal records or mental illness from possessing firearms. However, the system has significant flaws, including an incomplete listing of these individuals and no background check.
  • The majority of gun laws exist at the state level. However, the laws regarding the carrying of weapons vary greatly. The majority of states allow legal gun owners to openly carry their firearms in public without a licence or permit.
  • In the United States, gun rights advocates, led by the National Rifle Association (NRA), constitute a formidable gun lobby that politicians fear to confront.
  • The gun lobby argues that firearms make society safer by empowering individuals to defend themselves and discouraging criminals from targeting armed individuals.

People respond violently as a result of an increase in pandemic-related, financial, employment, or family and relationship difficulties.

Gun culture in Punjab

  • Following the murders of kabaddi player Sandeep Nangal Ambian in March 2022 and singer Sidhu Moosewala in May 2022, the Punjab government has been under pressure for “deteriorating” law and order. According to official data, Punjab has issued more than 3,500,000 firearm licences.
  • In November 2022, the government of Punjab issued a total ban on the public display of weapons and songs glorifying violence.

Indian Arms Act of 1959

  •  Following the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, the British enacted the Arms Act of 1878, which prohibited Indians from owning firearms unless they could prove their loyalty to the Crown. Following India’s independence, this law was repealed and the Indian Arms Act of 1959 was enacted.
  •  A licence is required to acquire or transport ammunition under the terms of this law.
  • A 2019 amendment to the Act reduced the number of permissible firearms from three to one and provided a one-year grace period for the surrender of excess firearms. Additionally, the amendment increased the validity period of a firearm licence from three to five years.
  • Sale/possession of firearms is prohibited for:  Anyone below the age of 21; 4. Anyone who is of unsound mind; and Anyone sentenced and convicted of crimes involving violence or moral depravity, who has not completed five years after the end of their sentence.
  • Punishment: Individuals who violate the Act can face at least seven years of imprisonment which may be extended to life.

Arms Rules, 2016

  • In 2016, the Centre issued new Arms Rules, 2016, superseding the Arms Rules, 1962, whereby applying for an arms license, rifle club, association, or firing range required one to complete a safety training course involving safe handling and carrying procedures.


  • The Act exempts firearms that are part of the standard equipment of any seagoing vessel or aircraft.
  • Sporting individuals (international medalists/famous shooters) are permitted to carry firearms for target practise.
  • Persons under orders from the Central government, public servants, and National Cadet Corps (NCC) members are exempt from the provisions of this Act.

Source: TH

Ammunition made of depleted uranium

Tags: GS 2, India & Foreign Relations


  • The British government announced in March 2023 that it would provide Ukraine with depleted uranium-containing armour-piercing rounds and Challenger 2 tanks.
  • घटिया यूरेनियम से बना गोला बारूद



  • Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.  It is a silvery-grey metal in the actinide series of the periodic table.
  • A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons.
  • Uranium radioactively decays by emitting an alpha particle. The half-life of this decay varies between 159,200 and 4.5 billion years for different isotopes, making them useful for dating the age of the Earth.
  •  The most common isotopes in natural uranium are uranium-238 (which has 146 neutrons and accounts for over 99% of uranium on Earth) and uranium-235 (which has 143 neutrons).
  •  Uranium-235 is the only naturally occurring fissile isotope, which makes it widely used in nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons.

Depleted Uranium (DU)

  • Depleted uranium (DU) is a toxic heavy metal and the primary by-product of uranium enrichment.
  • It is the substance remaining after most of the highly radioactive isotopes of uranium have been extracted for use as nuclear fuel or in nuclear weapons.
  • Compared to enriched uranium, depleted uranium is considerably less radioactive and incapable of initiating a nuclear chain reaction.

Depleted Uranium (DU) Munitions

  •  Usage: Due to its high density, which is roughly double that of lead, DU has been incorporated into munitions designed to penetrate armour plate, making it a formidable weapon against heavily armoured tanks. It can also be used to reinforce tanks and other military vehicles.
  •  Working: Munitions containing DU explode upon impact and release uranium oxide dust.
  • History: The United States and United Kingdom developed depleted uranium missiles in the 1970s. First used to destroy T-72 tanks in Iraq during the 1991 Gulf War, then in Kosovo in 1999, and finally during the 2003 Iraq War.
  •  Countries in possession: The United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, China, France, and Pakistan manufacture DU weapons, which are not classified as nuclear weapons.
  • Health and Environmental Concerns
  •   Even though DU munitions are not considered nuclear weapons, DU possesses the same chemical toxicity properties as uranium, although its radiological toxicity is less.
  • In the situations where fragments of, or complete, DU ammunitions were found, there is a potential risk of radiation effects for individuals who come into direct contact with such fragments or ammunitions.
  •   Ingesting or inhaling quantities of DU can cause severe diseases (such as depressing renal function and developing a range of cancers).
  •   Depleted uranium munitions which miss their target can poison groundwater and soil.
  •   In a post-conflict environment, the presence of DU residues can further increase the anxiety of local populations.

View of Experts

  • In 2007, the UN General Assembly mandated a review of the health effects of weapons containing depleted uranium, and international bodies have conducted multiple additional reviews.
  • The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) determined that exposure to depleted uranium did not cause significant poisoning.
  • However, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) warns that individuals who handle fragments of depleted uranium rounds may be exposed to radiation. However, this risk can also be mitigated by national authorities by collecting, storing, and disposing of these fragments.
  • According to a 2019 study published in the journal Environmental Pollution, there may be a connection between the use of depleted uranium weapons and birth defects in the Iraqi city of Nasiriyah.

Are DU weapons legal?

  • The Ministry of Defense (MoD) of the United Kingdom insists that the depleted uranium shells it is sending to Ukraine do not violate any international agreement.
  • Article 36 of the 1977 First Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 states that the United Kingdom’s depleted uranium shells “may be used lawfully in international armed conflict.” In response to the British declaration, Russia declared its intent to deploy tactical nuclear weapons on Belarusian soil.

Source: TH

Shanghai Cooperation Organization’s growth

Tags: GS 2, India & Foreign Relations

In News

  • Saudi Arabia recently joined the Shanghai Cooperation Organization as a dialogue partner.


  • Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states have taken steps to diversify their security partners in response to the United States’ withdrawal from the region.
  • Through this process, countries have become closer to China. In this regard, the recent resumption of diplomatic relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran, brokered by China, and Iran’s impending membership in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) are noteworthy.
  • Saudi Aramco increased its investment in China by finalising a planned joint venture in northeast China and purchasing a stake in a privately controlled petrochemical group.

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation:

  •  The SCO is a political,
  • economic, and military organisation that aims to maintain peace, security, and stability in Eurasia. • It encompasses 40% of the world’s population, nearly 20% of the world’s gross domestic product, and 22% of the world’s landmass.
  • In 2001, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People’s Republic of China, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation, and the Republic of Tajikistan announced the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.
  • The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is currently composed of eight Member States (China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan), four Observer States seeking full membership (Afghanistan, Belarus, Iran, and Mongolia), and six “Dialogue Partners” (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Turkey).
  • Its two permanent bodies are the SCO Secretariat in Beijing and the Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) in Tashkent.
  • India and pakistan became full members in 2017
  • The Chairmanship of the SCO rotates annually among member states.

India and SCO:

  • The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) provides India with the opportunity to initiate global and regional counterterrorism measures as well as regional efforts to combat the illegal drug trade.
  • India can use the SCO’s Regional Anti-Terrorism Structure (RATS) to enhance cooperation for addressing regional security challenges.
  • India may use the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation to promote the International North-South Transport Corridor and the Chabahar Port Project (INSTC). India, Iran, and Uzbekistan established a trilateral working committee in 2020 in order to collaborate more closely on the Chabahar port and other connectivity initiatives.
  • The SCO can be utilised to exert pressure on Pakistan to modify its position and strategy regarding the integration of Central Asia and South Asia. Pakistan has obstructed India’s interests in the past by refusing to allow connectivity and energy projects like The Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India (TAPI) Pipeline (TAPI) to pass through its territory.

Saudi -China Relations

  • In 2021, China will be Saudi Arabia’s largest trading partner, with bilateral trade reaching $87.3 billion. China’s exports to Saudi Arabia totaled $30.3 billion, while imports from the kingdom amounted to $57 billion.
  • Saudi Arabia is China’s top oil supplier. It accounts for 18% of Beijing’s total crude oil purchases.
  • China and Saudi Arabia joined forces after the United States began ceding influence in the Middle East. The Russia-Ukraine war and the incident involving Jamal Khashoggi have accelerated the process.
  • Both nations are committed to accelerating the economic synergy between the Belt and Road Initiative and Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030.


India’s New Literacy Initiative

Tags: GS 2, Health

In News

  • The government has launched the “New India Literacy Programme” (NILP), a new Centrally Sponsored Scheme to be implemented over the next five fiscal years, from 2022-23 to 2026-27.


  • The goal of the programme is to educate 5,00,000,000 illiterate individuals aged 15 and older.
  • The Scheme consists of five components: I Foundational Literacy and Numeracy, (ii) Critical Life Skills, (iii) Development of Vocational Skills, (iv) Basic Education, and (v) Continuing Education.
  • The beneficiaries of the programme are identified through a door-to-door mobile app survey conducted by surveyors in the States/UTs.
  • Non-literate individuals can also benefit from the programme by registering directly from any location using a mobile app. The scheme is primarily based on volunteerism for teaching and learning.
  • The scheme is based on technology and primarily implemented online. The materials and resources for teaching and learning have been made available on the DIKSHA platform of NCERT and can be accessed via mobile applications.

Foundational literacy

  • FLN is a person’s ability to read and solve simple mathematical problems (such as addition and subtraction).
  • Improvements in school infrastructure, uniforms, toilet access, water and the availability of textbooks remain a challenge, as do classroom procedures.
  • Education is negatively impacted by a lack of direct funds to schools, teacher vacancies, and the assignment of non-teaching tasks to teachers.
  • A systematic method for recruiting excellent teachers and establishing institutions for teacher development is still lacking.
  • Poor governance diminishes the efficacy of face-to-face or digital teacher development initiatives such as Nishtha, Pratham’s Read India campaign, etc.
  • Initiaives:
  • Nipun Bharat:It was launched with the goal of ensuring universal literacy and numeracy for children in Grade 3 by 2026-27.
  • Under the auspices of the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Samagra Shiksha, a five-tiered implementation mechanism was to be established at the national, state, district, block, and school levels in all States and UTs.
  • The National Education Policy (NEP): NEP 2020 It includes provisions for the National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy, which aims to achieve universal foundational literacy and numeracy in all primary schools by 2025. It also seeks to identify state-specific targets and goals to be attained by 2025.

Way ahead

  • Basic literacy can be enhanced further through the use of technology, decentralisation of funds, and community participation in the process.

Source: PIB

the nuclear power plant in Zaporizhzhia

Tags: GS 2, India & Foreign Relations

In News

  • The Director of the International Atomic Energy Agency visited the Zaporizhia Nuclear Power Plant recently.


  • Zaporizhzhia is a significant city in the southeast of Ukraine that is home to the largest nuclear power plant in Europe.
  • The nuclear power plant is located approximately 40 kilometres (25 miles) up the Dnieper River.
  • Zaporizhzhya में परमाणु ऊर्जा संयंत्र
  • The six reactors at the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant generate approximately 5,700 MW of electricity. Ukraine has four nuclear power plants with a total of fifteen reactors. About half of Ukraine’s energy demand is met by nuclear energy.
  • Ukraine signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a state without nuclear weapons. Each of its nuclear facilities is safeguarded by the IAEA. This entails that every bit of nuclear material and fuel, every kilogramme of uranium and every gramme of plutonium, must be accounted for and reported.
  • Russian forces attacked and took control of the plant in March 2022. IAEA has a permanent team stationed at the plant to prevent any nuclear risk.
  • IAEA has worked tirelessly to create a protection zone around the plant, which is very close to the front line of the conflict. The recent visit fits into this context.

International Atomic Energy Agency:

  • Began as the global “Atoms for Peace” organisation within the United Nations family in 1957.
  • It is headquartered in Vienna and reports to both the General Assembly and Security Council of the United Nations.
  • Functions: o Promotes the safe, secure, and peaceful use of nuclear technologies with its Member States and multiple international partners.
  • It was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005 for its efforts to promote a safe and peaceful world.
  • Aims to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to prohibit its use for any military purpose, including the production of nuclear weapons.

Source: TH

Solar PV waste issue in India

Tags: GS 3, Biodiversity and Environment

In News

  • A recent report by the National Solar Energy Federation of India predicted that India will produce over 34,600 tonnes of solar waste by 2030.


  • India has the fourth highest solar PV deployment in the world. In November 2022, the installed solar capacity was nearly 62GW.
  • This contributes significantly to solar PV waste. The majority of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in India use crystalline silicon (c-Si) technology. A typical PV panel is composed of c-Si and cadmium telluride thin-film modules. Both technologies have a recovery rate between 85 and 90%.
  • According to a projection by the International Renewable Energy Agency, the market value of raw materials recovered from solar panels could reach $450 million by 2030. This quantity of raw materials is roughly equivalent to that required to construct sixty million new solar panels or to generate eighteen gigawatts of electricity.

India’s current PV recycling policy

  • India recently added PV waste to its E waste management regulations. This places PV modules within the framework of Extended Producer Responsibility.

o Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is an environmental policy approach that extends a producer’s responsibility for a product to the post-consumption phase of a product’s life cycle.

  • According to a report from 2021, approximately fifty percent of the materials in a photovoltaic (PV) module can be recovered, but in India, only about twenty percent of PV waste is recovered and the rest is treated informally. Consequently, waste often accumulates in landfills, polluting the environment.
  • The waste incineration process emits sulphur dioxide, hydrogen fluoride, and hydrogen cyanide into the atmosphere.

Issues with Policy

  • Combining PV waste with other e-waste could cause confusion, as the characteristics of solar panel materials differ from those of other e-waste materials.
  • PV cells have Monocrystalline or multi-crystalline silicon. Recovering this silicon necessitates techniques distinct from those used to recover metals from e-waste;
  • at this time, recycling PV waste is not cost-effective. According to the National Renewable Energy Recycling Laboratory, a solar panel costs between $20 and $30 to recycle, whereas dumping it costs $1 to $2.
  • Lack of government incentives for recycling is another obstacle.

Remedial Measures

  • India should develop and implement specific provisions for the treatment of PV waste within the scope of the e-waste guidelines.
  • A central regulatory body should be established to prevent financial losses in waste collection and treatment.
  • A public education campaign emphasising the dangers of PV materials.
  • India must focus more on domestic R&D efforts due to its limited solar PV-panel manufacturing capacity.
Government Initiatives

  • Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission : It aims to achieve 20 GW of grid-connected solar power by 2022 in three phases by implementing several steps, including the Solar Park Scheme, the Central Public Sector Undertakings (CPSUs) scheme for grid-connected solar PV power projects, and the Viability Gap Funding (VGF) .
  •  In 2014-2015, the target was revised to 100 GW.
  • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha Uttan Mahabhiyan Yojana (PM-KUSUM) : It aims to solarize agriculture using agricultural solar pumps connected to the grid.
  • Suryamitra Skill Development Programme : The National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE) implements it. It focuses on preparing the workforce for the installation, operation, and maintenance of Solar Energy projects.
  • Atal Jyoti Yojana :it aims to provide solar street lighting systems for public use.
  • Solar Transfiguration of India (SRISTI) Scheme: Under this programme, the beneficiary receives financial incentives for installing solar power plant rooftop projects.
  • Green Energy Corridor Scheme: It is related to laying of new transmission lines and creating new sub-station capacity for evacuation (from region of production to region of consumption) of renewable power.