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Sant Ravidas

In News

  • Shri Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister, has said nice things about Sant Ravidas on his birthday.

• This day is a celebration of the famous Bhakti Movement saint’s birthday.

  • This year is the 646th year since

About Sant Ravidas

  • During the 15th and 16th centuries, he was a saint who was also a mystic poet.
  • He was an important spiritual figure, social reformer, and poet.
  • Raidas, Rohidas, and Ruhidas are all names for him.
  • Contributions
  • The Bhakti Movement will always remember the devotional songs and verses he wrote.
  • He learned from Sant Kabir and started the religion of Ravidassia. Mirabai was his pupil.
  • Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy book, has forty-one of his devotional songs and poems.
    • Our constitutional values are based on Guru Ravidasji’s ideas and values, such as social justice, equality, and brotherhood.
  • Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who was in charge of writing our Constitution, based its values on what Guru Ravidasji said was important.
Who are the Ravidassias?

  • The Ravidassias are a Dalit community of whom the bulk — nearly 12 lakh — live in Punjab’s Doaba region comprising Jalandhar, Hoshirpur, Kapurthala, and NawanShahr.
  •  The Dera Sachkhand Ballan, their largest dera with 20 lakh followers worldwide, was founded in the early 20th century by Baba Sant Pipal Das. Once closely connected with Sikhism, the dera severed these decades-old ties in 2010 and announced they would follow the Ravidassia religion.

Source: ET


India, UAE & France Trilateral Cooperation Initiative


India joined the UAE and France in a plan to work together in areas like energy, defence, and the economy.


• The trilateral was first talked about in September 2022 at the UN General Assembly in New York.

• The project will centre on

  • Sun and nuclear power
  • Climate change and the loss of species
  • Defense planning
  • Fighting against contagious diseases

Agenda of Trilateral Cooperation

• It will be a place where people can talk about and work on projects together in the energy field, with a focus on solar and nuclear energy.

• The initiative will also help protect biodiversity and fight climate change, especially in the area around the Indian Ocean.

• Under India’s Mission LIFE, the three groups wanted to work together in the field of circular economy.

• They agreed to work together more through projects like the UAE-led Mangrove Alliance for Climate and the India-France-led Indo-Pacific Parks Partnership.

• The countries have agreed to work together to prepare for defence and fight diseases.

• It tries to get organisations like the World Health Organization (WHO), Gavi-the Vaccine Alliance, the Global Fund, and Unitaid to work together more.

• They will work together to implement the “One Health” approach and help developing countries build their own capabilities in biomedical innovation and production.

Global initiatives launched by India for Clean Energy

  • Mission Life
    •  It aims to get at least one billion Indians and other people around the world to work together and on their own to protect the environment from 2022 to 2028. It is being tested by NITI Aayog, and the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change is in charge of making it happen.
  • International Solar Alliance (ISA)
    • ISA’s objective is to scale up solar energy and reduce the cost of solar power generation through the aggregation of demand for solar finance, technologies, innovation, research, and development, and capacity building.
  • One sun, one world, one grid project (OSOWOG)
    • It is based on the idea of building and expanding inter-regional energy grids so that solar energy can be shared all over the world. It could be the answer to most of our energy problems around the world.
  • India’s commitment at COP26 Glasgow summit
    • To take India’s non-fossil fuel energy capacity to 500 GW by 2030.
    • To bring down the carbon intensity of India by more than 45% by 2030.
    • India will achieve the target of net zero carbon emissions by 2070.
  • Mission Innovation CleanTech Exchange
    • The network provides access to the expertise and market insights needed to support new technologies to access new markets globally.

SourceThe Hindu

Reduced funds for MGNREGA in Budget 2023-24

In News

• In the Budget 2023-24, the money for the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) scheme has been cut.


• The budget for the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) has been cut by the Indian government to 60,000 crore rupees in 2023-24.

• The new amount is 33% less than the revised estimate of?89,000 crore for 2022-23 and 18% less than the budget estimate of?73,000 crore for the same year.

• Even in rural programmes, the government has changed its focus from giving out money to making investments.

• The Ministry of Rural Development says that MGNREGA is a demand-driven programme and that the number of person days depends on how much work there is to do.

  •  From 2020-21 to 2022-23, the MGNREGA budget was higher because of the COVID-19 pandemic and job and real income losses.

• During the pandemic, the government set up two major social safety nets—the public distribution system and MGNREGA—to help people who were most at risk.

• MGNREGA has created a record number of jobs: 389 crore person-days in 2020-21 and 363 crore person-days in 2021-22.

• The lower budget for MGNREGA, according to the government, is based on the idea that the economy has fully recovered from the pandemic and the war in Ukraine.

• However, a group of activists and academics have asked for?2.72 lakh crore to be put into the scheme so that all households who have worked this year get the legally required 100 days of work. Even 40 days of work would cost?1.24 lakh crore to pay for.

Major criticism

• Activists from Peoples’ Action for Status Guarantee and the NREGA Sangarsh Morcha have criticised the allocation because it doesn’t meet the minimum threshold to give eligible households 100 days of work instead of 40 days.

• Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan has said that the allocation is unfair to the poor and is a step towards getting rid of the law.

• Less than 3% of households that worked through MGNREGA got the full 100 days of work they were legally entitled to. On average, each household only got 42 days of work, which is the lowest number in five years.

What is MGNREGA?

  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) 2005, is a flagship rural job scheme of the Indian government aimed at providing employment opportunities to the rural poor.
  • It is one of the largest public workfare programs in the world and has been instrumental in addressing the issue of rural poverty and unemployment in India.

Important provisions

  • Employment guarantee – Every rural household gets 100 days of work from MGNREGA in a financial year.
  • Decentralized planning – Gram Panchayats, which are local institutions for self-government, run the programme and make sure that planning and implementation are not centralised.
  • Legal right: The Act provides a legal right to employment for adult members of rural households.
  • Women empowerment: At least one-third of the people who get the money must be women.
  • Statutory limit: Wages must be paid according to the wages specified for agricultural labourers in the state under the Minimum Wages Act, 1948.
  • Time-Bound Guarantee of Work: After being asked for work, a job must be found within 15 days, or a “jobless allowance” must be given.
  • Supporting Panchayats: Gram Sabhas must recommend the works that are to be undertaken and at least 50 per cent of the works must be executed by them.
  • Social security measures – The program provides for a number of social security measures such as unemployment allowances and pension schemes for the aged and widows.
  • Transparency and accountability – The MGNREGA is open and accountable because it uses biometric tools and has a clear way for people to file complaints.
  • Challenges
  • Fund allocation and utilization – It is one of the major challenges faced by MGNREGA as the inadequate allocation of funds has resulted in a delay in wage payments and implementation of the program.
  • Corruption – Corruption at various levels such as misappropriation of funds, fake job cards, and fake muster rolls have been reported and have hampered the effectiveness of the program.
  • Delays in wage payments – Delays in wage payments are one of the major reasons for the low participation of workers in the program.
  • Lack of awareness – Many rural people are unaware of their rights and the provisions of the program, leading to low participation.
  • Lack of transparency and accountability – There have been instances of mismanagement of funds and lack of accountability, which has affected the credibility of the program.

Importance of MGNREGA:

  • Reducing rural poverty: MGNREGA has been instrumental in reducing rural poverty by providing employment opportunities and a steady source of income to the rural poor.
  • Empowering women: Both men and women get the same pay through the programme, which gives women more power and promotes gender equality in rural areas.
  • Decentralized planning and implementation: MGNREGA’s decentralized planning and implementation ensure that the program is implemented in a participatory and inclusive manner, addressing the needs of the rural poor.
  • Climate resilience: It provides for the creation of durable assets such as water conservation structures and afforestation, which help in building the resilience of rural areas to climate change.

What more can be done?

  • Strengthening the implementation mechanism: Increasing the capacity and effectiveness of the government and the agencies that do the work.
  • Increasing transparency and accountability: Establishing clear and effective systems of monitoring, evaluation and grievance redressal is crucial to ensuring that the scheme is implemented in a transparent and accountable manner.
  • Improving financial management: The scheme should be financially sustainable and should have effective systems for tracking expenditures, tracking work and disbursing payments.
  • Fostering community ownership: Encouraging active community participation in the design and implementation of the scheme to ensure that the benefits of the scheme reach those who need it most.
  • Building human resources and technical capacities: Building the capacity of field functionaries, such as Gram Rozgar Sevaks and technical staff to ensure the effective implementation of the scheme.
  • Ensuring convergence with other schemes: MGNREGA should be integrated with other rural development schemes and programs to maximize its impact and improve its effectiveness.

Way ahead

  • MGNREGA has been a game changer in addressing the issue of rural poverty and unemployment in India. However, it faces several challenges such as corruption, lack of transparency, and inadequate fund allocation, which need to be addressed for the program to be more effective. 
  • Despite its challenges, MGNREGA continues to be an important safety net for the rural poor in India and has helped in empowering the rural poor and promoting inclusive growth.

 Source: TH

Rise in Drug Abuse

In News

• Surveys done by the state Ministry for Excise show that the number of drug overdose cases in Kerala is going up.


• The number of drug-related crimes in Kerala went up a lot in 2022, which shows that drugs have become a major problem for the state.

• In the last six years, the number of drug cases in Kerala has gone up 300%, while the number of arrests has gone up 90%.

• In 2022, there were 26,629 cases filed under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act. This is a big jump from the 5,924 cases filed in 2016 and the 9,245 cases filed in 2019.

• Almost 97% of the people who answered the survey said they had used some kind of drug. Cannabis (ganja) was the most common drug (82%), followed by tobacco (75.6%).

• Recreational drugs like MDMA and methamphetamine are sold in Kerala, and in 2022, the number of methamphetamine seizures went up.

• The report also says that people from Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Bihar are bringing cannabis into the state.

Need to curb drug abuse

  • About: India’s location between the world’s two main illicit opium-producing regions, the Golden Crescent and Golden Triangle, has left its borders open to drug trafficking. It emanates from two fronts, the NW and NE, which pose a danger to national security and border violations, respectively.
  • Substance abuse and addiction: Harmful use of drugs or alcohol can lead to physical or mental dependence, which makes it hard for a person to do daily tasks and hard for them to stop using on their own.
  • Overdose and health consequences: Abusing drugs can cause serious health problems, like overdoses that can kill.
  • Psychological and social impacts on the individual and their family: Substance abuse can cause emotional distress, depression, anxiety, and other mental health problems for the individual and their family.
  • Increased crime and criminal activity: Drugs are often linked to criminal behavior, such as theft, violence, and drug trafficking which pose a threat to public safety and increase the burden on law enforcement.
  • Strain on healthcare systems and resources: Substance abuse can put a strain on healthcare systems and resources, as it often requires extensive medical treatment and rehabilitation.
  • Lost productivity and economic costs: Substance abuse can lead to decreased productivity at work, absenteeism, and even job loss. It also has broader economic costs, such as increased healthcare costs and decreased economic growth.
  • Social stigma and discrimination: Substance abuse is often stigmatized, and individuals struggling with addiction may face discrimination and social isolation.
  • Difficulty in access to treatment and recovery resources: Many individuals struggling with substance abuse face barriers to accessing effective treatment and recovery resources, such as lack of affordable options, long waitlists.
  • Difficulty in effectively addressing and preventing drug abuse through education and public policy: Addressing and preventing substance abuse is hard because there isn’t enough money, there isn’t enough political will, and people have different ideas about what the best way to do things is.
  • Major challenges in controlling the drug menace
  • High demandIndia has a lot of people who want drugs. This is because the number of young people is growing and people have more money to spend.
  • Lack of effective law enforcement: Despite efforts by the government to curb drug trafficking, the porous borders and widespread corruption in India make it difficult to effectively enforce anti-drug laws.
  • Inadequate rehabilitation facilities: There is a shortage of rehabilitation facilities and resources for those struggling with drug addiction, making it difficult for them to access the help they need.
  • Stigma and discrimination: Substance abuse and addiction are often associated with social stigma and discrimination, which can prevent people from seeking help and make it difficult for them to receive the care they need.
  • Difficulty in prevention and education: Drug abuse prevention and education campaigns are often underfunded and not effectively implemented, making it difficult to reach those who are most at risk.
  • Lack of comprehensive approach: The lack of a comprehensive approach to addressing the drug problem in India, including both treatment and prevention, makes it difficult to effectively address the issue.
Government steps to curb Drug abuse in India

  • National Drug Demand Reduction Policy: Its goal is to stop and reduce drug abuse through a number of methods, such as reducing demand, reducing supply, and reducing harm.
  • Rehabilitation: The government has set up multiple rehabilitation centers and de-addiction clinics to provide treatment and support to individuals struggling with drug addiction.
  • Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act(1985): It is the main legal framework in India to curb drug abuse and trafficking, and imposes stringent penalties on those involved in drug-related crimes.
  • Information dissemination: The government has implemented various public awareness and educational campaigns to spread knowledge about the dangers of drug abuse and to prevent drug use, particularly among young people.
  • Co-ordination: The government also works with other countries in the region to curb cross-border drug trafficking and to dismantle illegal drug production and distribution networks.
  • Support: The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment runs a scheme to provide financial and technical assistance to NGOs and other organizations working on drug demand reduction and rehabilitation.
  • Central Bureau of Narcotics (CBN): It is the main enforcement agency responsible for implementing the NDPS Act and for conducting raids and arrests in connection with drug-related crimes.


What can be done to curb the issue of drugs?

  • Improving access to treatment and rehabilitation: People who are addicted to drugs can recover if they have access to good treatment and rehabilitation services.
  • Strengthening law enforcement: Strengthening law enforcement efforts to curb drug trafficking and distribution can reduce the availability of drugs in the country.
  • Educating the public: Educating the public about the dangers of drug abuse through campaigns, public speaking, and school programs can raise awareness and discourage drug use.
  • Addressing root causes: Addressing the root causes of drug abuse, such as poverty, lack of education, and mental health issues, can help prevent people from turning to drugs in the first place.
  • Involving community leadersGetting community leaders and groups involved in the fight against drug abuse can help bring together local resources and get more people behind efforts to stop drug use.
  • Encouraging alternative activities: People are less likely to use drugs if they have other things to do, like sports, music, and community service.
  • Implementing effective public policy: Developing and implementing effective public policy that addresses the issue of drug abuse can help prevent drug use and support those who are struggling with addiction.
  • Researching new treatments and prevention methods: Investing in research and development to find new treatments and prevention methods can help reduce the harm caused by drug abuse.

 Source: TH

Bharat Gaurav Train

In News

• Indian Railways to introduce Bharat Gaurav Deluxe AC Tourist Train under ‘Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat’ Scheme for special tour Garvi Gujarat\s.

  • Bharat Gaurav Tourist Train launch is in line with the Government of India initiative “Dekho Apna Desh” to promote domestic tourism.

Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat Scheme

• It was started by the PM on Rashtriya Ekta Diwas, which took place on October 31, 2015, to honour Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel’s birthday.

• The idea of pairing states and territories is meant to help people from different states and territories get to know each other better and understand each other better.

• To put the plan into action, every State and UT in the country would be paired with another State or UT for a certain amount of time. During that time, they would work together in a planned way on things like language, literature, food, festivals, cultural events, tourism, etc.

• The Ministry of Education has been put in charge of coordinating all of the programmes.

Dekho Apna Desh Initiative

  • • The Ministry of Tourism started it in 2020.
  • Objective: To make people more aware of the country’s rich history and culture and to encourage people to travel within the country.
  • Target group: This plan is mostly for middle-class Indians and tries to get them to travel within India instead of going abroad.
  • The goal of the scheme is to get more Indians to travel within the country, which will help the Indian economy. It is expected to create more jobs in the tourism industry and give a much-needed boost to the economy of the country.
    •  The Ministry has also put up a Dekho Apna Desh pledge and quiz on the website to make people more aware.
  • PIB

Green Deal Industrial Plan

In News

• The European Commission just put out a Green Deal Industrial Plan to make Europe’s businesses more competitive.


  •  The Green Deal Industrial Plan includes making regulations easier to understand, making it easier to get funds, improving skills, and making the EU’s trade network better.
  • The proposal aims to bring changes in the following areas:
  • Regulatory Framework
    •  The plan is to make a “Net-Zero Industry Act” that will make rules easier to understand and speed up the process of getting permits for green projects.
    •  It also has a “Critical Raw Materials Act,” which will give people access to materials like rare earths that are important for making net-zero technology.
  • Access to funds
    • Loosening of state aid rules to help EU’s 27 governments with investment  in clean energy projects.
    • The plan enables countries with minor economies to take money from existing EU funds.
    • Aims to set up a “European Sovereignty Fund” in the future to give a structural answer to the investment needs.
  • Enhancing skills
    •  The plan is to set up “Net-Zero Industry Academies” that will offer programmes to improve and change skills in key industries.
  •  Trade network
    • seeks to further develop the EU’s network of Free Trade Agreements to support the green transition.
  • Implications
  • Will make green industries in Europe more competitive.
  • When looked at with the US Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), which will send $390 billion to clean energy projects, the plan could start a global subsidy war.

Source: IE

Spy Balloon


• A high-altitude balloon from China flew into U.S. airspace, which caused tensions between the two countries.

  • The U.S. Air Force was able to shoot down the balloon.


• The USA said the balloon was a spying device and said China broke the rules of international airspace.

• But the Chinese government said it was a civilian airship used to study weather that got blown off course by winds.

Spy Balloon

• Spy Already, balloons were being used in the military. During the French Revolutionary Wars at the end of the 18th century, balloons were used to get a bird’s-eye view of the battlefield. Their use at the Battle of Fleurus in 1794 is documented.

• Before aeroplanes really took off during the First World War, balloons were the best way to get a big-picture look at where the enemy was and what they were doing. This was impossible to do from the ground.

• Spy balloons are different from satellites in that they can watch from lower altitudes.

• After World War II, the US military started looking into using high-altitude spy balloons. This led to a large series of missions called Project Genet.

Tensions between the US and China

• Nancy Pelosi Taiwan visit

• Trade War

• Industry of Semiconductors

• Pandemic of Covid-19

• The Tech Race

• Emerging Superpower

SourceThe Hindu


In News

• Muons, which come from space, are being used by scientists to look at the fortress wall of Xi’an, an ancient city in China.

  • They looked at the wall of Xi’an city using a muon detector called CORMIS (Cosmic Ray Muon Imaging System).

What are Muons?

  • Subatomic particles called muons fall from space like rain. They are made when particles in the Earth’s atmosphere collide with cosmic rays, which are groups of high-energy particles moving through space just below the speed of light.
  • Atoms are the smallest pieces of matter. They are made up of even smaller pieces called subatomic particles, such as protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Muons vs Electrones

• Muons are like electrons, but they are more than 207 times heavier, which is like comparing an adult to a small elephant. So, sometimes people call them “fat electrons.”

• Muons are so heavy that they can travel through hundreds of metres of rock or other matter. In comparison, electrons can only go through a few centimetres.

• Muons only last for 2.2 microseconds before they break down into an electron and two types of neutrinos.


• Muography, also called muon radiography, is a method that uses muons’ ability to go through things. The way they are absorbed by matter can be used to make pictures of the inside of large bodies.

• Muography is similar to X-rays in how it works, but because muons are so strong, they can scan structures that are much bigger and wider.

• Since these high-energy particles are made by nature and are everywhere, all you need to do is put a muon detector under, inside, or near the thing you want to study.

• The method was first used in the late 1960s, when Nobel Prize-winning US experimental physicist Luis Alvarez worked with Egyptologists to look for hidden chambers in the Pyramid of Khafre in Giza.


    • Archaeology: In the late 1960s, Nobel Laureate and US experimental physicist Luis Alvarez worked with Egyptologists to look for hidden chambers in the Pyramid of Khafre in Giza. This was the first time this method was used.
    • However, in 2017, modern archaeologists repeated the experiment with more sophisticated and advanced muon detectors and stumbled upon a major finding.
  • o By putting out several detectors, the archaeologists were able to find a chamber that was at least 30 metres long and had never been seen before.
  • Detecting Volcanic Eruptions: With the help of the technique, researchers are trying to understand the finer details of the volcano’s internal structure. Data will play a crucial role in predicting what hazards to expect in an eventual eruption.
  • Nuclear Plants: Muons can help detect dangerous nuclear material and see into damaged nuclear power plants.  Scientists used the technique to look inside the Fukushima nuclear reactors after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan.
  • Application in various studies: Muons applications in studies of superconductors, molecular systems and chemical reactions, novel battery materials and a variety of organic systems.


Hydropower Generation and Climate Change

In News

Based on observations and climate projections, the IIT Gandhinagar team looked at how the climate and water changed in the catchment areas and what that meant for hydropower production in 46 major dams in the north, centre, and south of India.

Major Highlights of a recent study 

    • • A climate that is warmer and wetter is expected to bring about 5%-33% more rain. Because of this, most dams’ hydropower production is likely to go up by 9–36%, which will come from 7–70% more water going into the dams.
  • It is expected that rain will increase more in the north and central parts of India than in the south.
    •  The increased precipitation will alter the inflow to the dams more in north and central India than in south India and also hydropower generation

Because of global warming, most dams will have more extreme inflow and more water in their reservoirs at the same time.

• This means that there will be more hydroelectric power, which is good, but it also makes it harder to manage reservoirs and makes dam breaks more likely.

About Hydropower

• Hydropower or hydroelectric power is a renewable source of energy that uses a dam or other structure to change the natural flow of a river or other body of water. This changes the way the water moves and creates electricity.

• Hydropower is often thought of as “green” energy because it uses the natural flow of water to make electricity without putting out any pollution or emissions.

• It does not depend on fossil fuels either.


  • The Himalayas are a major water source for much of South Asia. 
  • Most countries in the region, including India, China, Nepal, Bhutan, and Pakistan, have built or are planning to build hydropower projects in the Himalayas. 
  • In India, the government has identified hydropower as a key renewable energy source. 
    • Many hydropower projects are under construction or in the planning stages in the Indian Himalayas, including the Subansiri Lower Hydroelectric Project in Arunachal Pradesh and the Teesta Low Dam Hydroelectric Project in Sikkim.
  • Based on selected hydroelectric dams, the projected increase in hydropower potential in India is 10-23%. 

Challenges and Concerns 

  • Large hydroelectric dams can also have a big effect on the environment when they are built and kept up.
  • Building dams can stop the flow of rivers, which can change the temperature and chemistry of the water.
  • It can also cause erosion, landslides, and sedimentation, all of which are bad for the environment in the area.
  • Dams also change the way fish and other aquatic animals move and have an effect on the wildlife in the area, especially if the construction of the dam leads to the loss of habitat.
  • Large hydroelectric dams force local people to move, which hurts their way of life, their culture, and the overall health of the local population.
    • Climate change has caused changes in the weather, such as more snow and rain.
    • These changing phenomena made infrastructure projects in the Himalayan regions risky.

Other Options: 

• Micro hydro is a small-scale hydroelectric power system that usually makes up to 100 kilowatts (kW) of electricity.

• In these systems, falling water turns a turbine, which then turns a generator to make electricity.

  • They can be used for many things, like powering homes, businesses, and even small towns.
  • Micro hydro systems are typically less expensive to build and maintain than large hydroelectric dams and have a smaller environmental footprint. 
  • They can be located even in inaccessible areas where it is difficult to transmit electricity from larger power stations, and they can provide a reliable source of energy to communities that are not connected to the grid
  • Micro hydro systems can be tailored to minimise the ecosystem’s negative impact and provide sustainable energy solutions.
    • However, it’s important to note that even micro-hydropower projects can have some impact on the environment and local communities. 

Conclusion and Suggestion 

  •  The good news is that India could get more hydropower from global warming. The bad news is that this could hurt the health of dams.
  •  When planning new hydropower projects, the government must take into account changes caused by climate change.
  •  Weather and water flow forecasts should be more accurate so that reservoir operations can be improved and water storage can keep up with high flows caused by heavy rain.
  • India might have to change the rule curves for how much water can be stored in reservoirs at different times during the monsoon season. This would stop sudden releases of water from reservoirs from causing floods.
  • A detailed assessment should be carried out to evaluate the potential impact before proceeding with the project.
Do you Know?

  • India is ranked fourth in the world for its installed capacity of renewable energy (including large hydro), fourth for its wind power capacity, and fourth for its solar power capacity (as per REN21 Renewables 2022 Global Status Report).
  •  India was one of the top five countries in the Global Climate Change Performance Index, and it has met its goal of having 40% of its installed capacity come from non-fossil sources by 2021, which was set for 2030.
  •  Non-fossil sources can meet 42% of our energy needs right now.

Source: TH

Save Wetlands Campaign

In News

• In Goa, the “Save Wetlands Campaign” was started by the Union Minister for Environment, Forests, and Climate Change.


  •  The “whole of society” approach of the Save Wetlands Campaign is meant to help people take positive steps to protect wetlands.
  • Activities involved:  
    • sensitizing people of the value of wetlands
    • increasing the coverage of wetland mitras 
    • building citizen partnerships for wetlands conservation.
  • World Wetlands Day:
  • It is celebrated every year on February 2 to remember that the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance was signed on that date in 1971. India has been a member of the Convention since 1982 and has so far named 75 wetlands as Ramsar sites.
  • The theme for World Wetlands Day in 2023 is “Wetland Restoration,” which shows how important it is to focus on restoring wetlands.

What are Wetlands? 

  • • Wetlands are places where water is the main thing that affects the environment and the plants and animals that live there. They happen where the water table is at or near the surface of the land or where the land is covered by water.
  • The Ramsar Convention defines wetlands as “areas of marsh, fen, peatland, or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with fresh, brackish, or salt water, including areas of marine water where the depth at low tide is less than six metres.”
  • Importance
    • Sequester Carbon: Wetlands are a part of the way water, nitrogen, and sulphur move around the world. Wetlands keep carbon in the plants and soil rather than letting it escape into the air as carbon dioxide.
    • Fighting Against Climate Change: Wetlands also help reduce the risk of disasters such as floods, by acting as buffers.
    • Paradise for Migratory Birds: Millions of migratory birds flock to wetlands
    • Cultural and Tourism Importance:Wetlands also have a deep connection with Indian culture and traditions.
  • Global Initiatives
    • Ramsar Convention: The convention aims at conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation. It came into force in 1975.
    • Montreux Record: It is a register of Ramsar wetland sites where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference.
    • World Wetlands Day: It is celebrated every year on the 2nd of February across the globe.
  • Indian Initiatives
    • Statutory Protection: In India, the wetlands are regulated under the Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2017. The 2010 Rules provided for a Central Wetland Regulatory Authority, but new Rules of 2017 replaced it with state-level bodies and created a National Wetland Committee, which functions in an advisory role.
    • Action Plan of MoEFCC: The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) supports the implementation of management action plans for over 250 wetlands under schemes such as National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Ecosystems, Mangroves and Coral Reefs, and Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats.
  • Ramsar sites in india
    •  India has added 11 more wetlands to the list of Ramsar sites. Now, the country has a total of 75 Ramsar sites, which cover a total area of 13,26,677 ha.
    •  Tamil Nadu has the most Ramsar sites, with 14. UP is in second place, with 10 Ramsar sites.
Some of the newly added sites are given below

Tampara Lake:

  • Tampara Lake is one of the most well-known freshwater lakes in Odisha.
    • It is on the right side of the Rushikulya River.
    • Its link to the Rushikulya river helps keep floods from happening during the monsoon season.

Hirakud Reservoir:

  • The Hirakud Reservoir, which is Odisha’s largest earthen dam, has been in use since 1957. The reservoir is home to many different kinds of plants and animals. The wetland is also important for hydrology because it helps keep floods in the Mahanadi delta from getting too bad.

Ansupa Lake :

  • Ansupa Lake is the largest freshwater lake of Odisha
  •  The wetland is an oxbow lake formed by River Mahanadi 

Yashwant Sagar:

  • Yashwant Sagar is one of the two Important Bird Areas (IBA) in the Indore and Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh.  
  • Yashwant Sagar is a stronghold of the vulnerable Sarus Crane in central India. 
  • Due to its vast shallow reed beds, the wetland is considered heaven to a large number of winter migratory birds.

Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary:

  • The Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary is in the Tamil Nadu district of Ramanathapuram. Since 1989, the wetland has been a protected area and has been called a Bird Sanctuary.

Suchindram Theroor Wetland Complex:

  • It is declared an Important Bird Area and lies at the southern tip of the Central Asian flyway of migratory birds. 
  •  It was formed for birds’ nesting purposes and it attracts thousands of birds every year

 Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary:

  • Vaduvur bird sanctuary, is a large human-made irrigation tank and shelter for migratory birds. 
  • Indian Pond Heron is common in the sanctuary

Thane Creek:

  • A creek is an inlet in a shoreline. Thane Creek is in Mumbai, which is in the Indian state of Maharashtra.
  • It has a lot of fresh water sources, with the Ulhas River being the biggest.
  • On both sides of Thane Creek, there are mangroves, and they make up about 20% of the species of Indian mangroves.
  • It is also well-known for its flamingos.

Hygam Wetland Conservation Reserve:

  • Hygam Wetland falls within the River Jhelum basin and plays a significant role as a flood absorption basin
  • . The wetland is located in the Baramulla district. It serves as an abode to many resident  and migratory bird species. 



Source: PIB