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National Commission of Schedule Tribes (NCST)

In News 

• The Minister of State for Tribal Affairs recently told Parliament that the National Commission of Schedule Tribes is working with less than 50% of the number of people it was meant to have.

National Commission of Schedule Tribes (NCST)

  • Background:
    • The 89th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003, changed Article 338 and added a new Article 338A to the Constitution. This made the NCST possible.
    • This amendment changed the National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes into two separate groups:
  • The National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) and the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST)
  • Composition
  • There is one chairperson, one vice-chairperson, and three members on the NCST panel (two out of VC, and the members should be from the ST community). There should be at least one woman in the group.
  • The term of office for the Chairperson, the Vice-Chairperson, and the other Members is 3 years.
  • Each member can only be chosen for a maximum of two terms.
  • The President chooses the members by signing and sealing a warrant.
  • The Commission has all the powers of a civil court when looking into any complaint about Scheduled Tribes not having their rights and protections respected.
  • Powers and Functions
  • To look into and keep an eye on things related to the STs’ protections under the Constitution, other laws, or a government order, and to evaluate how well these protections work.
  • To look into specific complaints about how the Scheduled Tribes’ rights and protections have been taken away.
  • To take part in and give advice on the planning process for the socioeconomic development of the Scheduled Tribes and to evaluate the progress of their development under the Union and any State.
  • To report on how well these safeguards are working to the President once a year and any other time the Commission thinks is right.

Issues with NCST

  • Appointments:
    • Lack of Appointment: It only has a chairperson and one member. All of the other positions, including the mandatory ST member position, are empty.
  • According to parliament, as of January 31, 2023, 54 of the 124 positions that have been approved will be filled, leaving 70 positions open.
  • The Ministry is in charge of filling Group A positions in the NCST, while the NCST is in charge of Group B and C positions.
    • Lack of Candidates: In the recruitment process, the eligibility bar is set too high and the rules are impromptu changed. 
  • Pending Reports: 
    • The commission has been dysfunctional for the last five years and has not delivered a single report to Parliament.
    • As per the Commission, in the financial year 2021-22, it has met only four times. Its rate of pendency of resolution of complaints and cases that it receives is also close to 50 percent.
  • Budgetary Constraints:
    • The Commission does not have a separate Budget Head to advance its Demand for Grants in a realistic manner.

Way Ahead

  • The Commission needs to do its job according to what the Constitution says it can do. It should work to improve the lives of STs and stop Schedule tribes from being taken advantage of.
  • The open positions should be filled right away, and the required positions should be filled as soon as possible so that the commission can work well.
  • The reports that haven’t been brought up in parliament should have been brought up, and their recommendations should have been talked about.
  • The budget for the commission needed to be changed so that the constitutional body wouldn’t have trouble working because it didn’t have enough money.
                                                Schedule Tribes

  •  According to Article 342 of the Constitution, the President can declare tribes or tribal communities, or parts or groups of these tribes and tribal communities, to be Schedule Tribes by making a public announcement.
  • Criteria: The Constitution is silent about the criteria for the specification of a community as a Scheduled Tribe. Primitiveness, geographical isolation, shyness, and social, educational & economic backwardness are the traits that distinguish Scheduled Tribe communities from other communities.
  • There are 75 Scheduled Tribes known as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs), which are characterized by:
  • The level of technology before agriculture
  • Stagnant or declining population
  • Very little education
  • Economy just enough to get by

Related Committees

  • Xaxa Committee (2013)
  • Bhuria Commission (2002-2004)
  • Lokur Committee (1965)

Source: The Hindu

India’s Disaster Relief Diplomacy

In News

• Recently, India sent relief supplies, a 30-bed field hospital, and rescue and medical staff to Turkey on an Indian Air Force (IAF) C-17 Globemaster transport aircraft as part of its Humanitarian and Disaster Relief (HADR) efforts to help Turkey and Syria, both of which were hit by earthquakes.

About India’s Disaster Relief Diplomacy 

  • India sends most of its humanitarian aid through bilateral channels and, more and more, through multilateral channels as well.
  • Humanitarian aid is one of the ways India helps its partner countries around the world develop.
  • This help has been given in response to natural disasters, during long-term, complicated emergencies, and after a war, a natural disaster, or a pandemic.
  • India made a platform called “SAARC COVID-19 Information Exchange Platform (COINEX)” that can be used by all SAARC countries to help health professionals from different countries share information and tools about COVID-19.
  • As time has gone on, India’s Neighborhood First policy has come to include disaster diplomacy as one of its most important parts.


  • • Humanitarian aid in India is based on the country’s cultural and spiritual beliefs.
    •  All of the major religions, including Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam, teach that people should stand with those who are suffering.
  • The government understands how important the UN’s four basic principles for human rights are: humanity, neutrality, impartiality, and independence.
  • India is also a signatory to all four Geneva Conventions and participated in the 2016 World Humanitarian Summit. 
  • • India’s humanitarian actions are often based on what the governments of the countries receiving aid have said they need. This is because India’s foreign policy is based on the idea of South-South Cooperation (SSC).
Previous instances of India sending aid to natural disaster-hit countries

  • The United States of America : In 2005, at the Little Rock Air Force Base in Arkansas, an Indian Air Force IL-76 plane brought 25 tonnes of aid for Hurricane Katrina victims.
  • The aid supplies included 3,000 blankets, bed sheets, tarps, and items for personal hygiene.
  • Maldives: After the 2004 Tsunami, the Indian government announced a composite package worth five crore rupees. 
  • Under “Operation Castor,” 50 missions were flown by four planes and two ships from the Navy to help people in need.
  • Sri Lanka: India sent its forces to carry out rescue operations, called “Operation Rainbow”, in Sri Lanka hours after the Tsunami struck the country in 2004. 
  • Myanmar: When cyclone Nargis hit Myanmar in 2008 killing at least 20,000 people, India was among the first countries to send aid to them. 
    • It gave 125.5 tonnes of relief material, including medicines, clothing, utensils, water tanks, tents and tarpaulin.
  • Japan: The 2011 Tsunami wreaked havoc in Japan. Apart from providing relief materials, India also sent 46 members of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) to search and rescue in the town of Onagawa. 
    • The team included a doctor, three officers, six inspectors, two paramedics and constables and carried 9,000 kg of equipment and food.
  • Nepal: In the aftermath of the 2015 Nepal earthquakes, the NDRF deployed 16 of its urban search and rescue (USAR) teams, which comprised more than 700 rescuers in the country. 
    • The teams organised six medical camps and attended to 1,219 persons. 
  • India’s humanitarian assistance mostly flows through bilateral channels.
  • However, different Indian governments have also worked with multilateral platforms.
  • A recent effort to help the Kingdom of Tonga with the help of Australia as part of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue group (QSD or Quad) is an example of this kind of project.
    • Over the past 20 years, India has also worked with UN agencies like the World Food Programme (WFP) and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) to provide food and other aid.
    • In the same way, the country was able to send wheat to Afghanistan in March 2022 with the help of the WFP.
  • Others
    • India launched relief operations for neighbouring countries: Operation Castor in Maldives, and Operation ‘Gambhir’ in Indonesia
    • In 2007, in the aftermath of Cyclone Sidr that hit Bangladesh, Operation ‘Sahayata’ was launched 
      • India also offered help to Pakistan after the 2010 earthquake
  • Samudra Maitri was an operation that helped Indonesians during the October 2018 earthquake and tsunami




  • Helping out in times of disaster becomes a way to keep and build good relationships with other countries.
  • It’s a way to get the good will of other countries and the local people by giving a good impression of the helping country.
  • Given its quest for becoming a regional power and securing a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council, India is increasingly eager to portray itself as a provider of development assistance.
  • Disaster diplomacy has a lot of potential for the future, and India has the chance to become the “Good Samaritan” of the region, a power that people in the wider area look to for help.

Challenges and Constraints

  • India has performed well in terms of assistance, but the timing of these relief efforts remains a grey area. 
  • Often relief efforts reach affected people long after disasters strike leading to the destruction of life and property.
  • Sometimes  India failed to project itself as an aid giver in the global media.
  • It has been observed that the Indian armed forces face challenges related to preparedness for disaster response and recovery.

Conclusion and Way Forward 

  • It is important that special budgetary allocations be made for disaster management-related expenditures.
  • Apart from this, emerging forums like the Quad should be utilised for humanitarian assistance and disaster relief.
    • This will also bolster India’s image as a growing power, with the capability in administering operations outside its borders
  • There is a need to increase in capacity – stockpile reserves, trained personnel, and procedures – along with a coordinated effort with other countries and the United Nations to fulfill the tenets of Vasudhaiva Kudumbkam


K.G. Balakrishnan Commission

In News

• The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment recently said that the government is fully committed to giving the Balakrishnan Commission everything it needs to work well.

About K.G. Balakrishnan Commission 

• The Union government has announced that the former Chief Justice of India and former head of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC), K. G. Balakrishnan, will lead a new Commission in 2022.

• Dr. Ravindra Kumar Jain, a retired IAS officer, and Prof. Sushma Yadav, a member of the University Grants Commission, will also be on the three-person Commission.

• The report will be sent in two years.


  • To examine the issue of whether Scheduled Caste (SC) status can be accorded to Dalits who have over the years converted to religions other than Sikhism or Buddhism.  
  • The commission’s inquiry will also look into the changes an SC person goes through after converting to another religion and its implications on the question of including them as SCs. 
  • These will include examining their traditions, customs, social and other forms of discrimination, and how and whether they have changed as a result of the conversion.  
  • The commission has also been empowered to examine any other related questions that it deemed appropriate, in consultation with and with the consent of the Central government.

Present Status 

• Right now, the Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1950 says that only Hindu, Sikh, and Buddhist people can be considered SCs.

• When it was put into place, the Order only let Hindu communities be classified as SCs because of the social disadvantages and discrimination they had to deal with because they were untouchable.

  • In 1956, it was changed to include Sikh communities, and in 1990, it was changed again to include Buddhist communities as SCs.

Other Efforts have been made to include Muslims and Christians of Dalit origin among SCs

  • After 1990, a number of Private Member Bills were brought in Parliament for this purpose.
  •  In 1996, a government Bill called The Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Orders (Amendment) Bill was drafted, but in view of a divergence of opinions, the Bill was not introduced in Parliament.
  • The UPA government headed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh set up two important panels: 
      • In October 2004, the National Commission for Religious and Linguistic Minorities, also called the Ranganath Misra Commission, was set up.
      • It gave its report in 2007 and said that SC status should be “completely separated from religion” and that Scheduled Castes should be treated the same as Scheduled Tribes when it comes to religion.
      •  A high-level committee of seven people, led by Rajinder Sachar, the former Chief Justice of the Delhi High Court, was set up in March 2005 to study the social, economic, and educational situation of Muslims.
      • The Sachar Commission Report observed that the social and economic situation of Dalit Muslims and Dalit Christians did not improve after conversion. 
  • The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and the National Commission for Minorities had also recommended providing SC status to Dalit Muslims and Dalit Christians in affidavits filed before the Supreme Court in 2011.

Future Outlook 

  • This is a seminal and historically complex sociological and constitutional question, and a definite matter of public importance given its importance, sensitivity, and potential impact, any change in definition in this regard should be on the basis of a detailed and definitive study and extensive consultation with all stakeholders and no commission under the Commissions of Inquiry Act, 1952 (60 of 1952) has so far inquired into the matter.”
Do you Know?

  • • Scheduled Castes were given special treatment because they had been hurt by the social wrong of untouchability, which was common among Hindus.
  • Article 341 of the Constitution says that the President can “specify the castes, races, or tribes or parts of or groups within castes, races, or tribes who shall be considered to be Scheduled Castes.”
  • Religion-based bar does not apply to converted STs and OBC
    • The rights of a person belonging to a Scheduled Tribe are independent of his/her religious faith.”
    • Following the implementation of the Mandal Commission report, several Christian and Muslim communities have found a place in the Central and state lists of OBCs.

Source: TH

Left Wing Extremism

In News

• The Union Home Minister recently said that the ministry is determined to “financially choke” Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) to death.

More about the news

  • Reduction of deaths:
  • o According to the Union Home Minister, the number of civilians and security personnel killed by Left Wing Extremism (LWE) dropped below 100 for the first time in 40 years in 2022.
    • Left-wing extremism was 76% lower in 2022 than it was in 2010.
  • He was leading the Parliamentary Consultative Committee on LWE meeting.
  • He said that the Ministry of Home Affairs wants to kill off the whole ecosystem of LWEs by cutting off their money.
  • According to him, the MHA’s policy to deal with LWE has three main pillars:
    • Atrategy to curb extremist violence with ruthless approach, 
    • Better coordination between Centre and states, and 
    • Eliminating support for LWE through public participation in development.
  • Strengthening Armed Forces:
    • New camps:
    • He talked about what the Ministry of Home Affairs had done and said that since 2019, the armed forces had set up 175 new camps to make up for the lack of security in areas with LWE.
    • BSF Air Wing:
    • In the past year, new pilots and engineers have been added to the BSF air wing to help with operations in areas affected by LWE.
    • Police stations:
      • Funds were also provided to the State police forces for modernisation and assistance related to construction of fortified police stations.
Left-wing Extremism(LWE) in India

  • About:
    • Since the 1960s, left-wing extremists, called Maoists around the world and Naxalites/Naxalism in India, have been a major threat to India.
    • The Naxalites have often gone after tribal, police, and government workers in what they say is a fight for better land rights and more jobs for agricultural workers and the poor who don’t get enough help from the government.
    • Red Corridor:
  • In India, the area where LWE has power is called the “Red corridor.” Both the area it covers and the number of violent incidents have been steadily going down.
  • History of LWE in India:
  • The word “Naxalism” comes from the name of a village in West Bengal called Naxalbari, where farmers rose up against their landlords in 1967 over a land dispute.
  • Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) in India started with the Telangana peasant rebellion (1946–1951). The movement reached its peak in 1967, when peasants, landless workers, and Adivasis raided the granaries of a landlord in the Naxalbari village in West Bengal.
  • Charu Majumdar and his close friends Kanu Sanyal and Jangal Santhal were in charge of the Naxal rebellion.
  • People from nearby villages and also people from the People’s Republic of China helped these rebels. This movement was called “Spring Thunder” by the Chinese media.
  • o At first, the movement was influenced by China’s founder, Mao Zedong, but it has since become very different from Maoism.


Reasons for Left Wing Extremism

  • Tribal Discontent:
  •  The Forest (Conservation) Act of 1980 has been used to go after tribal people who live off of forest products.
  • A lot of tribal people have to move because of development projects, mining operations, and other things in states where Naxalism is a problem.
  • Also, FRA wasn’t put into place well, and the land ceiling was taken away.
  • Lack of Livelihood: 
  • Maoists recruit people with no other way to make a living into Naxalism.
  •  Maoists give these people money, weapons, and ammunition.
  • Governance-related issues:
    • Government measures its success on the basis of the number of violent attacks rather than the development done in the Naxal-affected areas.
    • o They don’t have enough technical knowledge to fight against the Naxalites.
    •  Problems with infrastructure, such as the fact that some villages are not yet properly connected to a communication network.
    • No Follow-Up from Administration: It is seen that even after police take hold of a region, the administration fails to provide essential services to the people of that region.

Government’s initiatives

  • As part of the goal to ensure all-round development in the affected areas, several special schemes were being implemented apart from the flagship programmes of the Central government. 
  • SAMADHAN doctrine:
      •  It solves the LWE problem all at once. It includes every part of the government’s strategy, from short-term plans to long-term plans made at different levels. SAMADHAN stands for-
      • S– Smart Leadership,
      • A– Aggressive Strategy,
      • M– Motivation and Training,
      • A– Actionable Intelligence,
      • D– Dashboard Based KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) and KRAs (Key Result Areas),
      • H– Harnessing Technology,
      • A– Action plan for each Theatre,
      • N– No access to Financing.
  •  It is a special programme under Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (formerly Ajeevika Skills), which was started in June 2013 to train and place rural poor youth from 27 LWE-affected districts in 09 States.
    •  The government tried to stop the threat of LWE groups by sharing information and making separate 66 Indian Reserved Battalion (IRBs), CRPF battalions like the COBRA battalion and the Bastariya battalion, and so on.
  • Road Connectivity:
    • Construction of 17,462 km of roadways had been sanctioned to improve road connectivity, of which work on about 11,811 km had been completed.
  • Mobile connectivity:
    • For better mobile connectivity, 2,343 mobile towers had been installed in the first phase during the last eight years, and approval given to upgrade them to 4G. This apart, 2,542 new mobile towers were being installed in the second phase.
  • Eklavya Residential Model School:
    • 142 Eklavya Residential Model Schools were sanctioned in 21 years prior to 2019, while in the past three years, 103 have been sanctioned. 
    • So far, 245 Eklavya schools had been sanctioned in 90 LWE-affected districts and 121 of them were now functional. 
  • Banks, ATMs & Post offices:
    • The government also facilitated the opening of 1,258 bank branches and 1,348 ATMs in the worst hit districts, besides 4,903 post offices. 

Source: TH

Global Climate Resilience Fund


• The Clinton Global Initiative (CGI), the SEWA, and other groups announced a 50-million-dollar fund for women to help them adapt to climate change.


  • Global Climate Resilience Fund:
    • The fund will empower women and communities to fight climate change and help provide new livelihood resources and education.
    • It aims to provide solutions to the problems of women working under the sun, especially for workers in the informal sector like construction, waste recycling, plastic, farming, etc. 
    • The fund brings together a group of concerned people like the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI), Rockefeller Resilience Centre, Desai Foundation, the AI Gore Foundation, Council for Inclusive Capitalism, and the American India Foundation.
    • The members do not have to pay insurance premiums and during extreme heat conditions when one does not work, this insurance will provide regular income.
  • Clinton Global Initiative:
    • The CGI is a membership-based organization that brings together leaders from across the business, government, and nonprofit sectors to drive action on global challenges.

Challenges faced by women due to Climate Change

  • Reduced Economic Opportunities: Climate change can make it hard for people to make a living, especially in places where farming or fishing are important. This can make it harder for women to find work.
  • Forced Migration: Climate-related natural disasters and rising sea levels can result in migration, which can lead to increased insecurity for women.
  • Water Scarcity: The girls and women are traditionally allotted tasks of collecting firewood and water and are asked to travel for long distances to provide for their families.
  • Health Risks: Climate change can facilitate the spread of diseases such as malaria and dengue and negatively affect women’s reproductive health.
  • Food Insecurity: Climate change affects agriculture and leads to food shortages, women and children are often the first to suffer from hunger.
  • Increased Care Responsibilities: Climate change exacerbates existing gender inequalities and increases the care responsibilities for women, who are often in charge of their family’s health and well-being.

Way Ahead

  • To address the challenges faced by women due to climate change, the following solutions can be implemented:
    • Climate Resilient Infrastructure: Climate-resilient infrastructure, like clean water systems, better farming methods, and homes that can withstand natural disasters, can help women deal with the effects of climate change.
    • Climate-Smart Agriculture: Climate-smart farming methods, such as conservation agriculture and agroforestry, can make food more secure and lessen the effects of climate change on women’s incomes.
    • Economic Empowerment for Women: Women should have access to things like education and job training that will help them deal with the effects of climate change. Eg. Mudra Yojana
    • Care Work Support: Providing support for care work, such as paid leave and child care, can ease the burden on women and enable them to participate in climate-related activities.
    • Gender-Inclusive Strategies: Climate change policies and initiatives should consider the unique needs and experiences of women.
    • Reproductive and Health Rights: Ensuring access to reproductive health services and family planning can help women adapt to the impacts of climate change. Eg. Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan 
    • Government programmes like UJJwala and Har Ghar Jal can help women deal with problems like not having enough water and getting wood.
                                                        Additional Information

  • Climate Resilience Fund: The Climate Resilience Fund mobilizes resources to support resilience and sustainability outcomes in communities across the U.S. and for the natural systems on which they depend.
  • Global Climate Resilience Program: The programme aims to help people adapt their lives and livelihoods to our changing climate, protect themselves from the increasing risks of disasters caused by climate change and become more aware of, and resilient to, current and future climate shocks.

Source: IE

Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS)

In Context

• The Union Budget just said that 63,000 Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS) will be computerised over the next five years. This will cost Rs 2,516 crore.


• The goal of this step is to make the way PACS works more open and accountable.

• Also, to give PACS the chance to expand their business and do more things.

What are PACS?

  • About:
  • o PACS are village-level cooperative credit societies. They are the last link in a three-tiered cooperative credit structure that is led by the State Cooperative Banks (SCB) at the state level.
  • Financial Structure:
    • The primary credit societies’ working capital is derived from their own funds, deposits, borrowings, and other sources.
      • Deposits are made by both members and non-members.
      • Borrowings are primarily made from central cooperative banks.
    • Credit from the SCBs is transferred to the district central cooperative banks, or DCCBs, that operate at the district level. 
    • The DCCBs work with PACS, which deal directly with farmers.
    • PACS are involved in short term lending — or what is known as crop loan. 
      • At the start of the cropping cycle, farmers avail credit to finance their requirement of seeds, fertilizers etc. 
      • Banks extend this credit at 7 percent interest, of which 3 per cent is subsidized by the Centre, and 2 per cent by the state government. 
      • Effectively, farmers avail the crop loans at 2 percent interest only.
  • Organisational Structure:
    • Since these are cooperative bodies, individual farmers are members of the PACS, and office-bearers are elected from within them.
    • The membership fee is low enough that even the poorest agriculturist can join.
    • A village can have multiple PACS.

Significance of PACS

  • It is a village-level institution that works directly with rural residents.
  • PACS provides the last mile connectivity to the farmers as the timely access to capital is necessary at the start of their agricultural activities.
  • PACS have the capacity to extend credit with minimal paperwork within a short time.
  • PACS typically offer the following services to their members:
    • Input facilities in the form of a monetary or in-kind component
    • Agriculture implements for hire
    • Storage space

Where is computerisation needed?

  • While SCBs and DCCBs are connected to the Core Banking Software (CBS), PACS are not, therefore a compatible platform is necessary to bring about uniformity in the system.
  • Computerisation of PACS has already been taken up by a few states, including Maharashtra.


Nisar Mission

In Context

• The NISAR satellite is on its way to India. Recently, NASA held a ceremony to send the satellite off.


  • T The satellite, which is about the size of an SUV, will be sent to India in February 2023 in a special cargo container flight. It could be launched in 2024 from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Key Facts about NISAR
  •  NISAR is a satellite that keeps an eye on Earth (NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar).
  • Developed by:
    • The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Indian Space Research Organisation are working together to make it. They signed a partnership agreement in 2014 to do this.
    • .
  • Function:
    • It will scan the globe every 12 days over the course of its three-year mission of imaging the Earth’s land, ice sheets and sea ice to give an unprecedented view of the planet.
  • Features:
    • The 2,800 kilogram satellite is a dual-frequency imaging radar satellite.
    • While NASA has provided the L-band radar, GPS, a high-capacity solid-state recorder to store data, and a payload data subsystem, ISRO has provided the S-band radar, the GSLV launch system and spacecraft.
  • Another important component of the satellite is its large 39-foot stationary antenna reflector. 
    • The reflector will be used to focus “the radar signals emitted and received by the upward-facing feed on the instrument structure.

Objectives of the Mission

  • NISAR will watch for small changes on Earth’s surface, which will help scientists figure out what causes them and what happens as a result.
  • It can find signs of natural disasters like volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides before they happen.
  • The satellite will also measure the levels of groundwater, track the flow rates of glaciers and ice sheets, and keep an eye on the planet’s forests and farmlands. This will help us learn more about how carbon is transferred from one place to another.
  • ISRO will use NISAR for many things, like mapping farms and keeping an eye on glaciers in the Himalayas, areas that are prone to landslides, and changes in the coastline.
  • NISAR will make high-resolution images by using SAR, which stands for “synthetic aperture radar.”
    • SAR is capable of penetrating clouds and can collect data day and night regardless of the weather conditions.