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Exhibition Celebrating India-Denmark Friendship

  • GS 2 India & Foreign Relations

In News

  • Recently, an exhibition featured artifacts and objects in silver from India and Denmark


  • The exhibition on India-Denmark friendship was held in New Delhi and displayed several artifacts over 250.
  • The exhibits displayed at the National Museum were inaugurated by the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Denmark and Foreign Minister of Denmark Lars Løkke Rasmussen.
  • Exhibition is part of the India-Denmark Cultural Exchange programme signed by the Indian Prime Minister in Denmark.
  • Major items on display were broadly around 5 Themes including: Historic silver from India and the history of Danish silver designs, Silver used for religious and ritualistic purposes, Items for personal use and jewellery, Craftsmanship and technique.
    • Silver beads from 3000 BCE Mohenjo-daro displayed alongside a 1590 silver lidded tankard from Copenhagen
    • Holger Kyster’s 1910 copy of restored cover for Fredrik II’s Bible from 1589
    • Late 19th Century-early 20th Century silver Khandoba idol from Maharashtra
  • India and Denmark share a long-standing relationship that has strengthened over time, encompassing economic, political, cultural, and geopolitical ties.
  • The two countries have been working towards deepening their partnership in various sectors, resulting in a mutually beneficial relationship.
  • In this regard, the recently launched Green Strategic Partnership between the two countries will further strengthen the relationship, with green hydrogen playing an essential role in the energy transition.

Importance of India-Denmark relationship

  • History: India and Denmark’s relationship dates back to the 17th century when the Danish East India Company established a trading post in Tranquebar, a small town on the southeast coast of India.
    • Danish also established trading post in Serampore, West Bengal, in 1755.
    • The two countries continued to have significant trade relations in the 19th century, and Denmark recognized India’s independence in 1947.
  • Economic Ties: India is Denmark’s second-largest trade partner in South Asia, with the two countries engaging in trade worth approximately $3 billion annually.
    • Denmark is known for its expertise in renewable energy, maritime technology, and healthcare.
  • Political Ties: India and Denmark have maintained a friendly and cooperative relationship at the political level.
    • Denmark has supported India’s bid for a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council.
    • Two countries have collaborated on global issues such as climate change, sustainable development, and counterterrorism.
  • Cultural Ties: The two countries have a shared cultural heritage that is reflected in their historic monuments, literature, and art.
    • Denmark has shown a keen interest in Indian culture and has established centers to promote Indian languages, art, and culture.
    • There are several Indian cultural centers in Denmark, including the Indian Cultural Institute in Copenhagen.
  • Geopolitical Ties: India and Denmark have collaborated on several geopolitical issues, including the Arctic region, where Denmark has a significant stake.
    • India has been keen on establishing a foothold in the Arctic and has collaborated with Denmark on Arctic research and development.
    • The two countries have also worked together on maritime security in the Indian Ocean.

Way ahead

  • India and Denmark’s relationship has evolved over the years, encompassing a broad range of areas.
  • The two countries have been working towards deepening their partnership in various sectors, resulting in a mutually beneficial relationship.
  • It is evident that the two countries share a robust and enduring relationship that will continue to grow and flourish in the coming years.

 Source: TH

Supreme Court eases norm for Consumer Court

  • GS 3 Polity and Governance

In News

The Supreme Court used its extraordinary powers under Article 142 to attract younger talent to preside over consumer courts by reducing the mandatory professional experience from 20 to 10 years.

Key Highlights of judgment

  • In a judgment, a Bench of Justices also introduced written exams and viva voce to check the candidates’ performance.
    • The written test would have two papers on subjects like current affairs, the Constitution, consumer laws, drafting, etc. There would be a viva voce too.
  • The judgment noted that the government has proposed several amendments to the Consumer Protection (Qualification for appointment, method of recruitment, procedure of appointment, term of office, resignation, and removal of President and Members of State Commission and District Commission) Rules, 2020.
    • The court said its judgment would fill the vacuum until the amendments were made in the 2020 Rules.

Consumer courts

  • The Indian government has established consumer courts under the Consumer Protection Act to safeguard the interest of consumers.
  •  It is a special-purpose court that deals with consumer complaints, disputes, and grievances.
    • Consumers can file a case against a seller or service provider if they feel cheated or exploited.
  • The purpose of establishing a separate forum for consumer disputes is to ensure speedy resolution of disputes with minimum inconvenience and expense to consumers.
  • Consumer Courts have proven to be the most effective way to provide a remedy to Consumers and address their grievances.
    • Filing a complaint is very easy and cost-effective, unlike other forms of litigation.
Do you Know?

  • The Consumer Protection Act, 2019 promulgates a three-tier quasi-judicial mechanism for the redressal of consumer disputes namely district commissions, state commissions, and national commissions.
  • The Act also stipulates the pecuniary jurisdiction of each tier of consumer commission.
    • District Commissions have jurisdiction to entertain complaints where the value of the goods or services paid as consideration does not exceed one crore rupees.
    •  State Commissions have jurisdiction to entertain complaints where the value of the goods or services paid as consideration, exceeds 1 crore rupees but does not exceed 10 crore rupees and

The National Commission has jurisdiction to entertain complaints where the value of goods or services paid as consideration exceeds 10 crore rupees.

Source: TH

Methane Global Tracker Report

  • GS 3 Conservation Environmental Pollution & Degradation

In News

  • IEA Report Highlights Failure of Fossil Fuel Firms to Curb Methane Emissions.


  • IEA’s annual Methane Global Tracker report has recently highlighted that the fossil fuel companies have failed to take substantial action to curb methane emissions
  • Report also shows that 75% of methane emissions can be reduced with cheap and readily available technology.
  • Previously, around 150 countries have joined the Global Methane Pledge which aims to reduce methane emissions from human activity by 30% from 2020 levels by 2030.
  • In its part, India has committed to reducing the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33-35% below 2005 levels by 2030.
  • By 2030, all fossil fuel producers in the Net Zero Emissions by 2050 scenario will have an emissions intensity similar to the world’s best operators today.

Major findings of the Report:

  • Energy sector accounts for around 40% of total average methane emissions.
  • Fossil fuel companies emitted 120 million metric tonnes of methane in 2022.
  • 80% of available options to curb methane emissions can be implemented at net zero cost.
  • Implementing methane reduction measures would cost less than 3% of net income received by the oil and gas industry in 2022.
  • Reduction of 75% of natural gas wastage could lower global temperature rise by nearly 0.1 degree Celsius by mid-century.
  • Methane is a greenhouse gas responsible for 30% of warming since preindustrial times, second only to carbon dioxide.
  • Over a 20-year period, methane is 80 times more potent at warming than carbon dioxide.

Impact of Methane Emissions on Climate Change:

  • Methane has an important short-term influence on the rate of climate change.
  • Atmospheric levels of methane jumped 17 parts per billion in 2021, beating the previous record set in 2020.



International Energy Agency (IEA)

  • It is an intergovernmental organization established in 1974 based in Paris as a response to physical disruptions in global oil supplies and to promote energy savings and conservation.
  • IEA’s mission is to promote reliable, affordable, and clean energy for its member countries and the rest of the world.
  • The IEA provides policy recommendations, analysis, and data on the global energy sector, representing 31 member countries and 11 association countries that account for 75% of global energy demand.
  • The Agreement on an International Energy Program (IEP Agreement) established the mandates and structure of the IEA under the umbrella of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
  • Only OECD member states may join the IEA and the members are required to maintain total oil stock levels equivalent to at least 90 days of the previous year’s net imports.
  • Association countries was formally launched in 2015 and currently includes 11 countries with Ukraine joining formally in 2022.
  • Key publications
    • World Energy Outlook (WEO)
    • Net Zero by 2050: a roadmap for the global energy sector
    • Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP)
    • Global EV Outlook (GEVO)
    • Oil Market Report
    • World Energy Investment
    • Clean Energy Transitions Programme

In recent years, IEA has come under several criticisms for systematically underestimating the role of renewable energy sources in future energy systems such as photovoltaics and their cost reductions.


Important steps taken by India to control methane emissions:

  • National Biodiversity Act: The government has launched it to protect and conserve biodiversity, which includes the reduction of methane emissions.
  • Paris Agreement: India is a signatory to the agreement which aims to limit global warming to below 2°C and pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C.
  • National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC): It has a specific mission to reduce emissions from agriculture by promoting low-emission technologies and practices in agriculture, such as the use of organic fertilizers and better livestock management.
  • Push for Renewables: The government has also launched several schemes to promote the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, which can help reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and the associated methane emissions.
  • National Green Tribunal: It has the power to adjudicate on environmental disputes and enforce laws related to environmental protection, including methane emissions.
  • National Clean Energy Fund: It was set up by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change to support research and development of clean energy technologies and projects.

Way ahead:

  • Fossil fuel companies need to take substantial action to curb methane emissions in consonance with the policymakers to address the issue.
  • Reduction of methane emissions is among the cheapest options to limit near-term global warming.
  • While these steps are aimed at reducing methane emissions, there is still much more that needs to be done to effectively control and reduce methane emissions especially in India.

Source: TH